未來領導人的角色

The Role of Tomorrow's Leaders
瀏覽人數:1744


影片載入中...
來自哈佛商學院研討會「想像未來的領導人」的見解。管理思想領導人談到,在一個階層較不分明、全球彼此連結更緊密的世界中,領導的意義為何。

安德魯.佩提格魯(牛津大學薩伊德商學院教授):我認為,領導人最重要的角色之一,尤其是大型政治組織、大型企業裡,領導人必須能跨國管理。跨邊界管理。邊界顯然是指國際層面的,涉及各種複雜的情況,處理有不同的價值觀立場、不同做法、不同社會的人。

當然,要跨越邊界。很多領導人必須影響一些組織內的情況,要讓我們加入他們,而在那些組織裡他們並沒有掌控權,他們沒有職位權力。因此,他們必須跨越這些界限發揮影響力。這需要一定程度的合作、需要外交手腕、一定程度的國際理解,我認為今天的很多領導人將面臨嚴峻挑戰。

鮑伯.喬翰森(未來研究所傑出研究員):領導人在未來世界裡的角色,是以互惠的方式與人們互動。換句話說,領導人必須很善於付出,並相信自己會獲得更多回報。

芭芭拉.凱勒曼(哈佛大學甘迺迪政府學院公共領導中心講師):我愈來愈相信,領導人現在擁有的掌控,其實比過去少得多。他們不再那麼容易設定標準模式,想要成為什麼樣的領導人。原因在於他們接收到的訊息。他們面臨的挑戰。他們的追隨者現在很少會輕易順從,而不提出任何異議或問題。科技每天無時無刻都引發挑戰,這些挑戰會瞬間傳遍全世界。

所以我認為,領導人或許應該要比過去更靈活。但這並不是說,領導人能夠按照自己的規畫推動事務。任何聰明人如果擔任有權力的職位、擁有權力、有影響力,就明白最好要全方位關注一切,因為事情會一直向他們襲來。過去那些日子,領導人只要制定路線,就會有許多相關人員整齊地謹慎遵循這條路線,那樣的日子已經結束。無論個別領導人的參與程度如何。

黛博拉.安康納(麻省理工學院教授):我認為,領導人的角色或許是要與其他領導人建立聯繫。在這個世界裡,單一的領導人,英雄式、無所不知、無所不能的領導人,可能是已經永遠消失的模式。但這並不表示這種人不存在。我們認為,我們需要的是分散式領導的概念。在各個層級都有領導。你需要一個最高階領導人。但你也需要整個組織有多個領導人。甚至與外部不同產業和組織的人建立聯繫,他們可以聚在一起,一起工作,一起協作,推動組織、產業朝策略目標前進。解決世界目前面臨的真正棘手難題。

戴西.道林(摩根士丹利領導力發展執行董事):一些會議常會討論到世界變得較不階層分明,而且領導人必須擅長一組全新的特性,才能在無階層的世界中工作。也許這是金融服務業環境的產物。但我不確定是否看到世界變得階層較少。也許在許多方面階層變得更明顯。世界更加由技術驅動。這讓它在某些方面減少階層,但我認為,管理結構仍然存在。所以我不確定是否看到,有完全不同的技能組合適用於未來。但我確實認為有一點很重要,就是領導人要善於透過不同媒介去溝通。

過去,領導人只專注於一對一的人際互動,或在一大群人面前發表演講。如今,你必須精通推特、電子郵件和電話溝通。人們必須用多種不同的方式呈現自己,用各種方式接觸自己從未見過的人,或是在一萬英里之外工作的人。還要很有效地用共同使命來凝聚人們,專注於一個目標。所以我認為,善於用多種方式溝通的人將會成功。

艾倫.蘭格博士(哈佛大學教授):我認為,領導人的角色是專注當下,如此才能善用眼前的機會,並看到周遭的人才、解決方案,而不是陷入過去曾經很合理的心態。

伊凡.維滕貝(Google全球領導力發展負責人):領導人的角色,在未來生活的各個層面和各個方面,應該是要在日益緊密的世界各個面向之間,建立連結。企業、政府、非營利機構等,必須共同努力解決我們面臨的重大挑戰,這需要領導人真正成為連結彼此的橋梁,跨越人們認為存在的不同界限,並建立關係和連結,以解決所有人面臨的重大問題。

詹比耶洛.彼崔格里利(歐洲工商管理學院組織行為學副教授):我認為在很多方面一直都是如此,就是領導人的角色是要連結人們,作為橋梁,把我們現在的樣子,和我們可能成為的樣子連結起來。我認為這是更難承擔的角色,因為比較容易做到的是,提出願景給那些擁有相同背景、經驗、來自相同文化、不太了解其他觀點的人們。

比較難做到的是,在多元的社群內,闡述、協商某個聯合企業的界限。更難的是,要在一個不斷接觸不同資訊來源、不確定的資訊、有各種觀點的社群裡這麼做。所以我會說,領導人的角色是平衡各方向之間的矛盾,同時對不同觀點抱持開放態度。

馬歇爾.甘茲(哈佛大學甘迺迪學院公共政策講師):如果你認為領導力的重點在於處理不確定性,就會有兩個挑戰。第一個是激勵挑戰。也就是我如何找到勇氣,並激發他人的勇氣,去應付不確定情況,而且不感到恐懼,而是充滿希望去面對。

第二個是策略挑戰。也就是我如何想像出新的方法,去使用資源,把它們轉化成一種能力,去獲得我需要或想要的東西。這正是領導力的關鍵。在快速變動的世界裡,在多元文化的世界裡,在全球化的世界裡,會有愈來愈多的不確定性。在這種情況下,道德清晰度可帶給我們勇氣,讓我們有能力理解他人,這種道德清晰度變得更加重要。

史考特.史努克(哈佛商學院副教授):領導人的角色,在一個更加扁平化、更少階層、更相互依存的世界中,又回歸為尋找目的。我們如何處理所有這些差異,無論是文化差異、社會差異、身分群體差異、技能差異,或組織中的不同職能,我們如何讓所有人至少找到一個共同目的?同時,頌揚並充分利用他們帶來的所有差異。對我來說,這就是新世界中最大的挑戰。

(劉純佑譯)


Andrew Pettigrew(Professor, Said Business School, University of Oxford): Well I think one of the most important roles for leaders, certainly of a big political organizations, and of large businesses, is to be able to manage across borders. And manage across boundaries. Borders of obviously the international dimension, with all the complexities of dealing with people with different values stances, different practices, and different societies.

And of course, across boundaries. Many leaders having to influence situations in organizations where we should join them where they are not in control. They don't have positional power. And therefore, they have to influence across those boundaries. And this requires a level of cooperation, requires diplomatic skill, a level of international understanding, that I think many leaders today would be sorely challenged.

Bob Johansen(Distinguished Fellow, Institute for the Future): So role of a leader in this future world is to engage with people in a way that's reciprocal. In other words, leaders have to become very good at giving things away in the trust that they'll get back even more in return.

Barbara Kellerman(Lecture in Public Leadership, Harvard Kennedy School): I am increasingly coming to believe that leaders have, in fact, much less control in the present than they did in the past. It's not as easy for them to set the template anymore. What kind of leader will I be? Simply because the messages that are coming at them. The challenges that are being thrown at them. A bunch of followers that are very rarely willing now to go easily along without protesting, asking questions. A technology that raises challenges every single second of the day. Challenges that are then instantaneously transmitted worldwide.

So I would argue that a leader, if anything, needs to be perhaps more nimble than in the past. But again, it's not as if the leader can set the stage. Any smart person who is in a position of authority, who has power, who has influence, understands that they better pay attention 360 degrees, because stuff is going to be coming at them all the time. And the day and age when the leader can simply chart a course, and that course is going to be neatly and carefully followed by a range of constituents, those days are over. No matter how participative is the individual leader.

Deborah Ancona(Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology): I think the role of the leader is perhaps to connect with other leaders. This is a world where the single leader - the heroic, omniscient, omnipotent leader is perhaps a model that is gone for good. But it doesn't mean that such people don't exist. What we need, we believe, is the notion of distributed leadership. Leadership at all levels. So you want a leader at the top. But you also want multiple leaders across the organization. And even linked to people outside in different sectors and other organizations, who can come together, work together, collaborate, and move the organization, the sector forward on strategic goals. On tackling the really difficult problems that the world has right now.

Daisy Wademan Dowling(Executive Director, Leadershipo Development at Morgan Stanley): So there's been a lot of conversation at the conference about how the world is getting less hierarchical. And about how leaders are going to have to adept at a whole new set of traits to work in a non-hierarchical world. And maybe this is a result of being the product of a financial services environment. But I'm not sure I see the world becoming less hierarchical. And maybe in many ways becoming more hierarchical. It’s more technologically driven. And that makes it less hierarchical in certain ways. But I think the structure of management is still there. So I'm not sure that I see totally different skill sets being relevant for the future. But what I do think it’s going to be very important is for leaders to become adept at communicating through different medium.

It used to be that a leader was just focused on one-on-one interpersonal interaction, or making speeches in front of a large group. And these days you have to be adept at Twitter, email, phone communication. There's just so many different ways in which a person has to present themselves. In ways they need to reach out to people they've never met, or who they work 10,000 miles away from. And be really effective at getting people together with a shared mission, and focused on a goal. So I think the adept, ambidextrous communicators will be the people who will be successful.

Dr. Ellen Langer(Professor, Harvard Univsesity): I think the role of a leader is to be in the present, so that they can again, take advantage of the opportunities that present themselves. And to recognize talent, solutions, all around them. Rather than being stuck in mindsets that made sense in the past.

Evan Wittenberg(Head of Global Leadership Development, Google, Inc.): The role of leaders, kind of at all levels and in all aspects of life going forward, is really going to be about building connections between the various aspects of our world that are coming closer together. The need for businesses, and governments, and not for profit institutions, and others to work together to solve the big challenges that we have, requires leaders who are really a bridge builders. And can cross those different assumed boundaries and make the relationships and connections happen to solve the big problems that we're all facing.

Gianpiero Petriglieri(Affiliate Professor of Organizational Behavior, INSEAD): I think it's in many ways what it's always been. Which is the role of connecting people, of serving as a bridge between who we are and who we may be. And I think it's a harder role to take in the sense that it's easier to articulate a vision for people who share the same background, experience, come from the same culture, who are somewhat insulated from alternative points of view.

It's harder to articulate, to negotiate the boundaries of a joint enterprise within a diverse community. And it's harder to do so in a community that's also constantly exposed to different sources of information, to disconfirming information, to a variety of point of view. So I would say the role of the leader is balance that paradox between direction, but also openness to alternative views.

Marshall Ganz(Lexturer in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School): If you see that leadership is about dealing with uncertainty, then there's two challenges. There's a motivational challenge. Which is how do I find the courage and inspire that courage in others, to deal with uncertainty, not fearfully, but hopefully.

Then the second is a strategic challenge. Which is how do I imagine new ways to use resources that I have to turn them into the capacity to get what is needed, or what I want. And that's core to what leadership's all about. In a rapidly changing world, in a multicultural world, in a globalizing world, there's just more, and more, and more uncertainty. And in that context is when the kind of moral clarity that gives us courage, and that gives us the capacity to understand others, is even more important.

Scott Snook(Associate Professor, Harvard Business School): So the role leader in a flatter world, less hierarchy, more interdependent, is back to finding purpose. How can we take all these differences, whether it's cultural differences, or social, or identity group differences, or skill differences, or different functions in an organization how do we get everybody at least finding a common purpose? And at the same time, celebrating and making the most of all the differences that they're bringing to the table. And so for me that's the biggest challenge in that new world.



本篇文章主題領導