輕足跡領導

Leading with a Light Footprint
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常博逸(Charles-Edouard Bouee)討論「輕足跡」軍事原則,以及如何把這套原則應用到企業管理的三個元素:創新、組織、部署。

茱莉亞.柯比:嗨,我是茱莉亞.柯比(Julia Kirby)。今天的來賓是常博逸(Charles-Edouard Bouee),他曾在慕尼黑的羅蘭貝格策略顧問公司擔任營運長,著有《輕足跡管理》。歡迎你來。

常博逸:謝謝。

茱莉亞.柯比:你一直在做這個非常有趣的思考,採用當前的軍事原則,思考如何透過類比的方式,把它應用到管理的環境裡。我們就從這套軍事原則開始談吧。為什麼陸軍軍事學院覺得必須重新思考整個作戰方法?

常博逸:他們在1990年代創造了VUCA一詞。

茱莉亞.柯比:VUCA。

常博逸:VUCA。V代表易變性。最初是指暴力,現在則是指易變性。U代表不確定性,C代表複雜性,別把它誤當成繁複,最後但不是最不重要的,則是模糊性。這就是他們告訴未來的將軍,未來戰爭樣貌會是這樣。

茱莉亞.柯比:依然是在軍事領域,面對易變、不確定、複雜、模糊的世界,軍事上的正確應對方式是什麼?

常博逸:有趣的是,軍方耗費多年才找到針對VUCA的答案。他們為它創造了一個詞「輕足跡」,我在書中就使用這個詞,它結合了一些不同的元素。第一個是無人機。我們都聽說過無人機,無人操作的機器,以及最極端的「奇點專案」,內容關於會思考的機器。第二個面向是第五域,即網路戰爭與數據的再利用。最後則是特種部隊的使用,這與過去的特種部隊完全不同。

茱莉亞.柯比:好,現在讓我們把這個應用到企業管理。你主張,在商業領域,我們同樣是在競爭環境中面臨新的VUCA威脅。你提到的特種部隊、無人機和其他要素,要如何做比喻?

常博逸:首先,現在大家都同意,這個世界就是VUCA。如果我們在十年前討論,人們會說:「哦,世界是非常可以預測的。」但今天,世界是VUCA。所以我說,如果世界是VUCA,那就用軍方給的答案,而世界也已經證明,軍隊為未來提供了一些目標。軍方創造了網際網路。它創造了全球定位系統。它創造了我們今天使用的一些東西,然後應用到企業。輕足跡管理的結構,包含三個元素。

第一個是創新。就像無人機、自動化一樣,企業必須數位化、自動化,並且可以運用(更多自動化)來變得更強大。創新的第二個元素是以數據為核心的一切。在數據方面,我看到兩條路:大數據和小數據。對企業很重要的是,要使用數據。第二個元素是組織,以敏捷性和特種部隊為核心,我之後會再談。最後一個元素是部署,核心是公開、秘密,以及像在戰時進行的附帶損害管理。

茱莉亞.柯比:我們來談談你看到的一些企業的例子,這些企業似乎是在做輕足跡管理。

常博逸:在過去,如果談到開放和聯盟,企業與人員之間的交易成本相當重要,所以我們傾向收購公司,在公司內部招募人員。到了2000年,交易成本變成零。借助(資訊)科技,加上交換數據的能力,內部或外部就能無縫接軌。我要再次指出,自2010年以來,交易成本已變為負數。讓我舉一個例子。

我們的其中一個客戶從事隧道鑽掘。他的工作是在世界各地開鑿隧道。為了賺錢,他必須盡可能快。為了追求快速,你需要管理隧道鑽掘中會遇到的所有問題。所以你需要積累很多知識。

他們發現,在法國、亞洲、美洲有一群人,他們的嗜好是在晚上和週末,觀看很多年前(開始)的鑽鑿工作,研究有什麼問題,以及如何解決這些問題。這些人是由第三方付費,而這是他們的業餘愛好。我們的客戶一直與他們合作。從那時候起,他就能夠更快、更有效率地鑽鑿,而且成本是負數,因為這些人不屬於他的組織。

茱莉亞.柯比:所以日益明顯的是,很多公司按照某些傳統方法進行管理,現在勢必大幅改變所用的方法。但現在是新創企業的公司呢?它們是否會按照某種新的模式創造出來?

常博逸:正是如此。就像軍隊必須從坦克和重型裝備,轉向更多科技和更多特種部隊,從今天開始起步的人(我稱他們為輕足跡原著民)將運用科技、人力和我提到的預先部署。我可以舉幾個例子。ARM是一家半導體科技公司,能夠觸及95%的手機設備,這是經由聯盟系統達成的。這就是輕足跡方法。

例如,它的規模是英特爾的五十分之一,營運很成功,培養了一千個盟友組成的網絡。在法國,電信和行動通訊業者Free為你的產品定價、進入市場時,決定採用非常輕足跡、沒有資產的方式進行。而現在,經過一年之後,它已取得7.5%的市占率。將有很多輕足跡原著民進入,對傳統企業、傳統軍隊來說,很重要的就是做好準備,轉向以適應新的輕足跡世界。

茱莉亞.柯比:常博逸,非常感謝你分享關於輕足跡管理的想法,內容很吸引人。

常博逸:謝謝你。

(劉純佑譯)


Julia Kirby: Hi, I'm Julia Kirby. My guest today is Charles-Edouard Bouee. He's the COO of Roland Berger, the Munich-based strategy consultancy, and he's the author of “Light Footprint Management--Leadership in Times of Change.” Welcome, Charles-Edouard.

Charles-Edouard Bouee: Thank you.

Julia Kirby: So you've been doing this really interesting thinking, taking current military doctrine and thinking about how it applies by analogy to the management setting. So why don't we start right there with the military doctrine? Why did the Army War College feel that they needed to rethink their whole approach to warfare?

Charles-Edouard Bouee: I think in the '90s, they coined the name VUCA.

Julia Kirby: VUCA.

Charles-Edouard Bouee: VUCA. V for volatility. Initially, it was for violence, now it's volatility. U for uncertainty, C for complexity -- not to mistake with complicated, complexity -- and last but not least, ambiguity. And this is what they told the future generals that war will be in the future.

Julia Kirby: And, still in the military sphere, what was the right response to that in terms of the military approach to a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous world?

Charles-Edouard Bouee: The interesting thing, it took many years for the military to coin the answer to this VUCA acronym. And they coined it into a word called ” light footprint,” which I use in the book, which is the combination of different elements. The first one is the drones. We've all heard about drones, unmanned machines, and to the extreme, the Singularity Project, which is about a machine which thinks. The second dimension is the fifths domain, cyber warfare with the reuse of data. And last but not least is the use of special forces, which is completely different than specialized troops of the past.

Julia Kirby: Ok, so now let's apply this to business management. You make the point that in the business realm as well, we have new VUCA threats in our competitive environment. What are the analogies, really, of special forces, drones, the other elements that you mention?

Charles-Edouard Bouee: The first thing is – we can all agree these days – that the world is VUCA. If we had talked together 10 years ago, people would have said, “Oh, the world is very predictable.” But today, the world is VUCA. So I said that if the world is VUCA, then the answer of the military -- and the world has proven that the military gives some aims to the future. They created internet. They created GPS. They created some of the things we are using today -- then it will apply to business. And the way it's structured in the light footprint management is three components.

The first one is innovation. Like drones, like automation, companies have to digitalize, have to automate, and can use [automation more] to get more powerful. The second element of the innovation is everything around the data. And in data, I would see two paths: the big data and the small data. It's very important for companies to use this. The second element is the organization, which is around agility and special forces -- I'll come back to this. And the last but not least is the disposition around openness, secretness, and the management of collateral damages like in wars.

Julia Kirby: So let's talk about some examples of companies that you've seen that seem like they're doing something like a light footprint management.

Charles-Edouard Bouee: If I talk about openness and alliances, in the past, the cost of transactions between companies and humans was quite important, and therefore we tended to buy companies and recruit people inside. In 2000, the cost of transaction becomes zero. With [information] technology, with the ability to exchange data, it could be seamless to be inside or outside. I push the point that since 2010, the cost of transactions has become negative. And I'm going to give you an example.

One of our clients is in the drilling of tunnels. So his job is to drill tunnels all over the world. And to make money, he has to be as fast as possible. And to be fast, you need to manage all the problems you will encounter in the tunnel drilling. And therefore you need to accumulate a lot of knowledge. They found out that there's a group in France and Asia and America of people who, in the evenings and the weekends, their hobby is to look at drilling [starting] many years ago, and what are the problems, and how to solve them. These people are paid by third parties, and this is their hobby. Our client has been teaming up with them. And since then, he's been able to work much faster in the drilling, much more efficiently, with a cost which is negative, because these people don't belong to his organization.

Julia Kirby: So what's becoming clear is that a lot of companies that today are managing according to some conventional, traditional approaches are going to have to change a lot about their approaches. But what about companies that are startups now? Are they going to be invented along some new model?

Charles-Edouard Bouee: Exactly. The same way the military will have to shift from the tanks and heavy equipment to more technology and more special forces, the people starting today -- I call them LFP- natives --will use the technology, the human power, and all the predispositions I mentioned. And I can give you a few examples. ARM, which is a technology semiconductor company, they were able to reach 95% of the equipment for mobile phones by having this alliance system, this is light footprint approach.

They are 1/50th of Intel, and they are a successful company with a network of 1,000 allies they nurture, for an example. In France, telecom business and mobile operator Free decided to price your product, get into the market, in a very light footprint way, no assets. And now, after one year, they've reached 7.5% of the market share. So we will have a lot of LFP-natives coming in, and it's very important for conventional companies, conventional armies, to prepare and shift to adapt to the new light footprint world.

Julia Kirby: Charles-Edouard, thank you so much for sharing your thinking about light footprint management. This has been fascinating.

Charles-Edouard Bouee: Thank you.



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