如何快速掌握新的領導角色?

How to Get Up to Speed in Your New Leadership Role
麥可.瓦金斯 Michael Watkins
瀏覽人數:1457


影片載入中...
加入新組織時,請避開這些常見的陷阱。

我研究領導人過渡期已超過十年。關於這個主題的大量研究顯示,若欠缺協助,自外部延攬的新領導人,尤其是決策高層,失敗率高達40%,有很多研究已經證實了這個數字。為何能力出眾的領導人在加入新公司後,常會陷入困境?

當你思考如何學習融入新角色時,我想建議你,專注於三種對你有實質幫助的學習,包括技術學習、文化學習、政治學習。技術學習就是要掌握新角色在技術層面的知識,可能是產品,可能是市場,可能是技術,也可能是組織的制度。問題通常源自學習過程的文化和政治層面。

至於文化,我們是指組織運作所根據的微妙規範和價值觀。自某個組織中崛起的領導人,在加入另一個組織後,往往會震驚地發現,兩者的組織文化截然不同。他們已經非常習慣在特定文化背景下做事,現在則有一套非常不同的規範。人們奉行的價值觀也大不相同。這可能會令人感到迷惘。

當然,這也有政治層面。在你進入新組織的同時,也捨棄了過去所屬組織中,讓你發揮效能的人脈關係。你曾經在組織中建立的那套權益和關係帳戶,真的已經不再存在,你有點像是從頭開始。這是巨大的挑戰,而如果你新加入的組織裡,政治動態與你離開的組織大不相同,這個挑戰會格外棘手。

這不表示領導人不會遇到技術問題。你剛加入新的組織,有很多東西要學。我看到領導人碰到的常見陷阱之一,就是嘗試做太多事情。這就是亂槍打鳥的問題。它的根本邏輯是,只要我做的事情夠多,其中必定有些事情會成功,會有些東西持續下去。有些事情會發生。

但當然,這種做法無可避免的後果是,你的精力分散到太多事情上。你等於沒有足夠專注在任何一件事。這確實造成焦點渙散的問題。你終究沒有完成你想做的任何事情。第二個陷阱,是設定不切實際的期望。這種情況特別可能發生在,你經歷招募流程之後,認為已經知道該做什麼事。這時你可能充滿幹勁,想要有所作為。你很可能過度承諾,最終卻無法兌現承諾。

第三大陷阱,我稱為「讓我有今日成就的因素」的陷阱。讓你在上一個職務或組織裡很有成效的各種技能和能力,未必能讓你在新組織裡取得成功。但有一個很容易理解的傾向,就是想留在你的舒適區,而當新職務的要求與你之前職務的要求不同時,這顯然就會造成問題。

還有一些問題是源自文化層面。其中一個是根本不了解遊戲的真正規則,也就是在組織中不言自明的做事方法、微妙的規範、微妙的價值觀,這些在你初來乍到時可能不太明顯,卻已深植於組織之中。你若不能快速了解真正的遊戲規則,可能會開始衝撞到其他人。別人會認為你沒有融入和適應組織的行事方法,這幾乎必然會為你帶來一些問題。

有個相關問題,我認為這問題會讓人在剛接觸新組織文化時,陷入麻煩,這問題就是加入時已有定見。領導人可能出於各種原因,很快就得到結論,認定組織必須做哪些事。他們加入時,就自認已經知道如何解決組織的問題。但當然,他們待在新組織的時間還不夠長,無法真正深入了解這些問題是什麼。人們開始反彈新領導人試圖推動的事情。他們並不相信領導人提出的答案。這成為一個反抗力量聚集的點,幾乎就與人類免疫系統對抗細菌或病毒的反應一樣。

還有一些事則源自政治層面。其中之一是,沒有真正和同事建立適當的關係。不難想見,新人剛加入組織時,傾向專注在上司身上,並向下關注直屬部屬,更加偏重組織的垂直運作層面。但很重要的是,在接手新職務時,一定要及早花時間關注橫向事物,接觸相同層級的同事,接觸其他利害關係人。

我有時會這樣描述這種情況:你不會希望在房屋失火的深夜裡,才第一次和鄰居碰面。最後,第七個陷阱主要來自政治環境,就是被錯誤的人挾持。當新領導人加入組織時,難免會發生角力。人們多少都會設法影響新的領導人,想讓他留下深刻印象,獲得他的青睞。

你加入新組織時,務必格外小心,千萬不要讓自己被那些人挾持。你必須以謹慎中立的態度,面對組織的政治結構,直到你非常清楚,你真正應該與誰建立關鍵聯盟。我們的研究顯示,在大多數情況下,只要公司做對事情,40%的失敗率可以下降到10%。

此外我們看到,適當的介入措施,能有效縮短領導人在新職務上充分發揮潛能所需的時間,最多可減少50%的時間。一項很有幫助的工具,就是一個通用的架構和通用的語言,可用來安度這段過渡期,我們稱為過渡路線圖。不意外地,第一個要素是加速學習。這有一部分是指,了解學習過程中的技術、文化和政治層面,並了解自己應專注在哪裡。

但重點也在於制定學習計畫。過渡路線圖的第二個步驟,是讓策略與情況相符。例如有兩種截然不同的情況。在危機或轉機的情況下,你必須很快速而果斷地行動;另一種情況是,你進入的是較成功的組織,因此必須花更多一點時間在領導流程上。

第三個要素是朝一致方向努力。過渡期最重要的單一或多個人員,通常是你的上司。因此,你在早期必須很努力了解他們,與他們協調達成一致的努力方向,而要協調一致的不只是期望,也包括他們對你所面臨的挑戰的理解,你應協調你可以得到哪些資源,以便做出成效,並仔細了解他們偏好與你共事的方式。你的行動範圍是什麼?你應該如何有效地溝通?

你可以開始為自己和組織建立方向。使命、目標、願景、策略。我喜歡把這些想成是:什麼、如何、為何。我們要完成什麼?使命是什麼?目標是什麼?我們如何做到?我們將採用什麼策略來實現這個目標?為何我們應對此感到振奮?

然後是真正與建立團隊有關的部分。實際上,你不必從頭開始建立團隊。在大多數情況下,你是接手別人的團隊,你必須評估這個團隊、重塑團隊、協調團隊,並加速團隊朝新方向前進。接下來的要素,是要確保早期勝利。早期的勝利,在現在這種情況下會是什麼樣子?你如何著手找出自己要關注的事項?

重要的是,你該如何安排組織,才能開始獲得這些勝利,並建立實現這個目標所需的支援?過渡路線圖的最後一個要素,是建立聯盟。在我合作的絕大多數大型組織裡,想完成任何工作,你都必須建立聯盟。你常是在矩陣式組織結構裡運作。你不見得有權力發號施令。不過有時候你擁有這種權力。

(劉純佑譯)


Instructor: I've been studying leadership transitions for much more than a decade at this point. Lots of research on this indicates that unaided, failure rates for leaders taking new rules coming in from the outside, particularly at senior levels, are up to 40%, and there's been a number of studies that have validated this particular number. So why is it that very capable leaders so often struggle when they're joining new companies?

As you think about learning going into a new role, I'm going to suggest that there's really three kinds of learning you need to focus on. There's technical learning, there's cultural learning, and there's political learning. Technical learning is really about getting up to speed with the technical dimensions of a new role. That can be products, it can be markets, it can be technologies, it can be the systems of your organization. Where the problems lie, typically, are more in the cultural and political domains of the learning process.

When you think about culture, what we're talking about here is subtle norms and values that inform the organization. Leaders that have come up in a single organization and then join another one often are shocked to find that there are very different organizational cultures. They've gotten very used to operating in the context of a particular culture, and now there's a very different set of norms. There's a very different set of values that people are operating by. And this can be quite disorienting.

And then, of course, there's the political dimensions of this. As you come into a new organization, you're leaving behind many of the networks, connections, and relationships that made you effective in your previous organization. That set of equities and relationship bank accounts that you've built up in the organization really aren't there anymore, and you've kind of got to start from scratch. This is a big challenge, and particularly big challenge when the political dynamics of the organization that you're joining may be very different than the political dynamics of the organization that you left.

Now that's not to say that leaders don't get into trouble with the technical piece, too. You're coming into a new organization. There's so much to learn. So one common trap I see leaders fall into is trying to do too much. And the issue here is really a kind of a riding off in all directions problem. The logic is basically that if I do enough things, I'm going to make something work. Something's going to stick. Something's going to happen.

But of course, the net result of this, almost inevitably, is your effort gets distributed across too many things. You're not really focusing enough attention on any one of them. And that really creates an issue of focus. And in the end you really don't accomplish anything that you want to. A second trap is setting unrealistic expectations. This is a particular issue when you've come through a recruiting process and you think you've got a view of what you need to do. And you may be very enthused, and you may be wanting to have an impact. And there's a real tendency to over promise and, in the end, under deliver in a situation like this.

A third big trap is, I call it the what got me here trap. The sorts of skills and abilities that may have made you very effective in your last role or your last organization may not necessarily be the ones that are going to make you successful here. But there's a very understandable tendency to stay in your comfort zone, and that can obviously create a problem when the demands of the new role don't really match, in the end, the demands that you had before.

Then there's some things that flow more from the cultural side. One is simply not understanding the real rules of the game, those unspoken understandings about how things get done in the organization, those subtle norms, those subtle values that may not be so obvious when you first arrived but are deeply embedded in the organization. And if you don't really understand rapidly the real rules of the game, you can begin to really bruise people. You can be perceived as really not connecting and fitting the way you need to in the organization, and that creates a certain number of issues for you almost inevitably.

A related issue, which I see can get people into trouble early on with the culture, is coming in with the answer. Often leaders, for multiple reasons, tend to reach conclusions too quickly about what needs to be done in the organization. They come in with a perception that this is the answer to the organization's problems. But of course they haven't been in your organization long enough to really deeply understand what those problems are. People begin to get reactive against what the new leader is trying to do. They don't really believe in the answer that the leader has come up with. And it becomes a rallying point for resistance, almost like the human immune system reacting against a bacterium or a virus.

And then there's a few things that really flow from the political dimension of things. One is just really not connecting appropriately with peers. There's an understandable tendency early on to focus upward to your boss and down to your direct reports and operate more in the vertical dimension of the organization. And it's really critical that you take some time early on, as you're going into the new role, to focus on the lateral side of things, to reach out to those peers, to reach out to those other key stakeholders.

And the way I sometimes describe it is you don't want to be meeting your neighbors for the first time in the middle of the night when your house is burning down. And finally, the seventh trap that really, again, flows more from the political environment, is being captured by the wrong people. There is almost inevitably a jockeying that happens when a new leader joins the organization. People are struggling, to some degree, to have influence on that person, to impress that person, to gain the favor of that person.

And you have to be exquisitely careful when you join a new organization not to let yourself be captured by those people. You have to be studiously neutral with regard to the political structure of the organization until you're pretty clear what the key alliances are that you really need to build. What our research shows about this is that 40% failure rate, in most situations, can be taken to 10% if companies do the right things.

In addition, we've seen that the right interventions can lead to up to 50% reductions in the time it takes for a leader to reach full performance in a new role. What helps a lot is to have a common framework and a common language for making transitions that we call the transition roadmap. Element number one, unsurprisingly, is accelerate your learning. And that means, in part, understanding the technical, cultural, and political dimensions of learning process and understanding what your focal point should be.

But it's also really about putting together a learning plan. A second step in the transition roadmap is match your strategy to the situation. There's a world of difference, for example, between coming into a crisis situation or a turnaround situation, where you've really got to act very quickly and very decisively, versus coming into a more successful organization where you need to take a bit more time with the leadership process.

A third element is gain alignment. The single most important person or people in your transition typically are the people you're going to be reporting to. So a lot of effort early on to really understand them, to align with them, and align not just in terms of expectations, but also align in terms of their understanding of the challenges you're up against, negotiating around the sorts of resources you're going to have to really make a difference, critically understanding something about the way they prefer to work with you. What's your scope for action? How should you be communicating effectively?

You can begin to establish direction for yourself and your organization. Mission, goals, vision, strategies. I like to think about it as the what, the how, and the why. What are we going to accomplish? What's the mission? What's the objectives? How are we going to do it? What are the strategies we're going to apply to make this happen, and why should we get excited about it?

Then there's a piece that's really about building your team. The reality here is you don't get to build your team from scratch. In most circumstances, you are inheriting somebody else's team, and you need to assess that team, reshape that team, align that team, and accelerate that team in new directions. Then there's a component that is about securing early wins. What are early wins going to look like in the circumstance? How do you begin to identify the ones you're going to focus on?

Critically, how do you organize a really begin to get those wins and a build the support that you need to really make that happen? So the final element of the transition roadmap is create alliances. In order to get anything done in most of the large organizations that I certainly work with, you need to create alliances. You're often operating in the context of a matrix. You don't necessarily have the authority to mandate things happen. Sometimes you do.

But often you're in a situation where there are key stakeholders. There are people who control resources that you need to have access to. And the name of the game when you're thinking about getting these early wins, or establishing direction for your organization, is building those alliances in order to move things forward.




本篇文章主題領導