為什麼移民創業家對美國如此重要

Why Immigrant Entrepreneurs Are So Important to the U.S.
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他們之中有很多人正在創造就業機會。

美國政治人物談到經濟時,常把經濟當成固定的大餅,移民和本地出生的公民必須相互競爭搶食。我們不常聽到有人談到移民如何把餅做大。舉例來說,有關創業的資料顯示,過去二十年移民在創業方面扮演日益重要的角色。衛斯理學院和哈佛商學院的研究人員進行一項研究,根據的是美國人口普查局1995年至2008年在美國31個州限制取得的資料。

他們發現,雖然移民約占美國勞動力的15%,但占所有新創公司員工約四分之一,約占專利申請的四分之一。移民也更有可能是公司創辦人,占所有創業者大約27%。在獲得創投支持的公司中,這個比率更高,接近31%。至少有一位移民創業者參與創設的新公司數量更多,比率達37%。

最後,移民創辦的公司更有可能創造就業機會。雖然這些新創公司失敗的速度,比由本國公民創辦的公司更快,但那些生存下來的公司,在就業和薪資方面的成長更快,為所有人創造更大的經濟大餅。

(劉純佑譯)


In the United States, politicians often talk about the economy as if it's a fixed pie, over which immigrants and native-born citizens all have to compete for a slice. What we don't often hear about is how immigration grows the pie. To take just one example, look at the data on entrepreneurship, where immigrants have played an increasingly important role in the last 20 years. Researchers at Wellesley College and Harvard Business School conducted a study based on restricted-access Census Bureau data from 1995 to 2008 in 31 States.

They found that, while immigrants make up about 15% of the US workforce, they account for about a quarter of all startup employees, and about a quarter of patent filings. They are also more likely to be company founders, accounting for roughly 27% of all entrepreneurs. For Venture Capital-backed firms it's even higher, closer to 31%. The number of new firms with at least one immigrant entrepreneur connected to its creation is higher still, at 37%.

Finally the firm's founded by immigrants are more likely to be job-creating companies. Although they fail at a faster rate than firms founded by native-born citizen those that survived grow at a faster rate in terms of employment and payroll and that creates a bigger pie for everyone.



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