西方中產階級被排除在全球成長之外

Western Middle Classes Have Been Left Out of Global Growth
瀏覽人數:654


影片載入中...
或許人們「感覺」全球化正在推動平等,即使事實並非如此。西方中產階級的所得成長速度,其實不如世界其他地區。

有些政治人物說,全球化促進了世界各地的繁榮。但也有人不同意,他們認為全球化拉大了貧富差距。哪一種說法是對的?讓我們看看資料。首先來看1988年至2008年全球人口的實際所得成長,按所得百分位劃分。這就是所謂的全球所得成長分布曲線。它呈現每個所得群體的所得成長情況,包括從最貧窮到最富有的群體。

它顯示每個人的所得都有成長,但不是每個人的所得以同樣速度成長。最富有的1%人口所得成長很多,全球中產階級也是如此。其實,全球近三分之一人口(主要是亞洲中、下階級),所得在短短二十年間飛速成長。這很驚人。其實,這個成長實在巨大,而且影響到很多人,因此導致全球貧富不均程度自1820年以來首次下降。

但中產階級的情況如何?全球第80至第90百分位數(主要包含美國和其他西方國家的中下階層),這些人的所得幾乎沒有增加。即使貧富不均程度在全球層次有下降,但在國家的層次,大多數國家都是上升的。

大多數人是和自己的鄰居比較,而不是和世界另一端的人比較,因此這表示,或許人們「感覺」全球化正在推動平等,即使事實並非如此。這意味前述兩種說法都有可能是對的,也就是全球化促進了全球整體的繁榮,同時也降低了個別國家的平等程度。

(劉純佑譯)


Some politicians say that globalization has increased prosperity around the world. But others disagree - they argue that globalization has increased income inequality. So which side is right? Let's look at the data. First, let's look at real income gains from 1988 to 2008 across the entire world’s population, divided into income percentiles. This is called the Global Incidence Curve. It illustrates how incomes have risen for each income group, from the poorest to the richest.

What it shows is that everyone's income has grown - but not everyone's income has grown equally. The wealthiest 1% grew a lot, and so did the global middle class. In fact, almost a third of the world's population - mostly from the Asian middle to lower class - saw their income skyrocket over just two decades. That is a huge deal. In fact, that increase is so dramatic and affects so many people that it led to the first decrease in global inequality since 1820.

But what is going on in the middle? The 80th to 90th global percentile represents mostly the lower and middle class in the United States and other Western countries, and for these people, incomes have barely increased at all. In fact, even though income inequality has dropped at the global level, at the national level, it has increased in most countries.

Since most people compare themselves to their neighbors, not to people on the other side of the world, this means it might “feel” like globalization is driving an equality, even if it's not. This means that it's possible that both sides are right - that globalization increases overall prosperity around the world, even as it reduces equality in individual countries.



本篇文章主題全球企業