績效管理再進化

Reinventing Performance Management
瀏覽人數:1985


影片載入中...
績效管理的功能不彰。這個七分鐘的短片,呈現德勤管理顧問公司如何徹底改造自身的系統。

績效評估系統功能不彰。德勤管理顧問公司進行一項調查,發現58%的高階主管認為,自家公司的評估系統,未如預期般提高績效或員工投入程度。為了解決自家公司的問題,德勤首先研究本身花多少時間進行績效評估。和許多企業一樣,它在年初為員工設定目標,並在每個專案完成後,對員工進行評等,然後在年底開會以比較評等,把每個員工的貢獻歸納為一個績效數字。

整個過程花費很多時間。一年總計達兩百萬個小時,包括花時間填寫6.5萬名員工的表格,並召開很多會議。其中大多數會議的討論,著重在那個流程的結果,而不是績效。還有另一個問題:德勤的需求變化快速,因此年度目標跟不上。

主管發現,即時討論更有價值。但另一個挑戰是,不同考核人員對技能的評等不一致。2000年,一份詳盡研究顯示,評等呈現的更多是考核者的觀點,而不是被考核的人。這讓德勤高階主管同聲質疑評等的價值。他們想要一個新的系統,能讓評等更加一致和準確,產生及時且適切的討論,並讓所有人都專注於推動未來的績效,而不是評估過去的績效。

德勤如何處理這個挑戰?下一步是研究區分高績效和低績效團隊的因素。最重要的三件事是:同事致力提高品質、具啟發性的使命、每天都有機會發揮所長。第三項因素對整個組織的影響最大。德勤高階主管明白,必須花更多時間協助員工發揮強項。若要有效做到這一點,他們必須收集更好的績效資料。

他們謹記這一點,坐下來設定新系統的三個主要目標。第一個目標很明確:允許組織以加薪和獎金來獎勵高績效。大多數績效管理系統都這麼做。但若要更好地獎勵績效,公司必須更清楚了解員工的表現。這是德勤的第二個關鍵目標。高階主管發現,最能清楚了解員工表現的,是他們直屬的團隊領導人。

因此,他們不再要求好幾個人,對每個員工的表現提供回饋意見,來自團隊領導人的意見就已足夠。德勤仍然擔心人們判斷他人技能時,使用反映評估者自身特有觀點的方式評估。因此,它不再要求領導人評估技能,反而聚焦於人們通常能夠更準確判斷的事情:他們自己對員工的感覺和意圖。現在,每個專案完成之後,德勤會調查,領導人會對每個團隊成員採取什麼行動。

德勤的做法是,讓領導人回應聚焦於未來的一些陳述。首先,他們會被問到對以下這段話的同意程度:「我會給這個人可能做到的最高幅度加薪和獎金」。這可以得到有關員工總體績效和價值的看法。接下來,領導人要回答自己對這段話的同意程度:「我希望這個人一直都在我的團隊裡。」這透露出員工與他人共事的能力。然後,領導人對以下兩個陳述回答是或否:「這個人有表現不佳的風險」和「這個人已準備好可以晉升」。

對這些陳述的回應,以速覽方式呈現員工在特定時間點的績效。每個速覽都根據專案的持續時間,進行加權。以速覽資料作為起點,來決定加薪和獎金。德勤也考慮了員工任務的挑戰性高低,以及員工對組織的其他貢獻。德勤使用速覽資料來協助領導人釐清員工發展和接班計畫,並研究績效模式。

這張圖呈現一個小團隊的情況。有三人被標記為隨時可升遷,有一人被認為有低績效的風險。德勤的某個部門將一千名員工放在這樣的網格上,按職位層級以不同顏色標示那些資料。他們設置了網格,你點擊其中一個點,就可以調出那個人的績效速覽詳細資訊。你可以想見,這會提供主管許多有用的資訊。相比之下,這是使用強制排序系統所獲得的三萬英尺視圖:那條古老而熟悉的鐘形曲線。

它的幫助較少。在這裡,每個人都被縮減為一個數字,即1、2、3、4或5。通常會把員工硬塞入各種類別,以滿足每個排序任意設定的人數配額。德勤不只想要衡量和獎勵績效,也想要改善績效。為了找出實現這個最終目標的構想,該公司檢視了最佳團隊領導人的實際做法。

最佳領導人會定期確認團隊成員目前的專案狀況。因此,德勤決定在全公司建立這種每週一次的討論。領導人利用這些討論來說明期望、出色工作的樣貌、每個人如何能表現優異。這些查詢工作不是額外工作,而是團隊領導人的職責。為什麼要每週查詢?這樣優先事項就不會變得模糊,也不會淪為空談。如此也能讓指導內容聚焦在近期的狀況,而不是過去的績效。

德勤的研究顯示,討論頻率與團隊成員的參與度之間,有直接的相關性。領導人的事務繁多,因此由團隊成員負責主動約時間討論。為了促進討論,德勤制定了自我評估工具,可讓員工發掘自己的強項,並向領導人說明。重點摘要:德勤認為,績效管理系統的目的是正確了解績效,據以提供獎勵,並啟發未來創造更好的績效。

為了支持這些目標,該公司制定了新的評估和指導流程。透過頻繁而即時地討論績效,德勤把關注重點從過去,轉為未來。新系統的做法激進,因為它排除了長久以來績效管理中備受重視的一些元素:自上而下設定的目標、年度考核、360度回饋意見等工具。

相反的,新系統的重點是速度、敏捷、持續學習。德勤的新方法克服了傳統評分系統最大的問題之一:後者只有一個面向。要了解績效,我們必須考慮許多因素。我們希望組織了解我們,我們希望了解工作中的自己,這些資訊無法被壓縮成一個數字。問題不是「呈現你狀況的最簡單視角是什麼?」而是「什麼是最豐富的視角?」

(劉純佑譯)


Performance review systems are broken. Deloitte Services conducted a survey and found that 58% of executives felt their system wasn't driving performance or engagement the way it was meant to. To address the problem in their own firm, Deloitte started by looking at the time it spent on performance reviews. Like many companies,it was setting objectives for employees at the beginning of the year, rating people after every project, and convening at year’s end to compare ratings and boil every employee’s contributions down into a single performance number.

That whole process took a lot of time. The grand total was 2 million hours a year. That included time spent completing forms for 65,000 employees and holding countless meetings. And most of that was focused on the outcome of the process instead of performance. There was another problem: Deloitte's needs were evolving so quickly that annual goals couldn't keep up with them.

Managers found that real-time discussions were much more valuable. Yet another challenge was inconsistency in skill ratings from reviewer to reviewer. In 2000, a comprehensive study showed that ratings reveal more about the people who give them than about the people being rated. This made the executives at Deloitte question the value of ratings altogether. They wanted a new system that would make ratings more consistent and accurate; generate timely, tailored discussions; and get everyone focused on fueling future performance instead of assessing the past.

So how did Deloitte tackle that challenge? The next step was to study what separated high- and low- performing teams. Three things mattered most: Coworkers’ commitment to quality, an inspiring mission, and the chance to use your strengths every day. The third one was the most powerful across the organization. Deloitte executives realized they needed to spend more time helping people use their strengths. To do so effectively, they have to collect better data on performance.

With that in mind, they sat down to define three main goals for their new system. The first goal was clear: Allow the organization to reward high performance with raises and bonuses. Most performance management systems do this. But to do a better job of rewarding performance, the company had to see it more clearly. This was Deloitte’s second critical goal. Executives realize that the person with the best view was an employee's immediate team leader.

So they stopped asking multiple people for feedback on each employee - input from the team leader was enough. Deloitte was still concerned about the idiosyncratic ways that people judged the skills of others. So it stopped asking them to assess skills altogether. Instead, it focused on something that people tend to judge much more accurately: their own feelings and intentions toward an employee. Now after every project, the firm essentially surveys leaders about what action they would take with each team member.

Deloitte does this by having leaders respond to for future-focused statements. First, they're asked how much they agree with the statement “I would award this person the highest possible increase and bonus.” This captures views of the employee’s overall performance and value. Next, leaders say how much they agree with the statement “I would always want this person on my team.” This gets out an employee's ability to work with others. Then leaders answer yes or no to two statements: “This person is at risk for low performance” and “This person is ready for promotion today.”

The responses to these statements provide a snapshot of the employee's performance at a certain point in time. Each snapshot is weighted according to the project's duration. The snapshot data becomes the starting point for decisions about salary increases and bonuses. Deloitte also factors in how challenging assignments are and the employee’s other contributions to the organization. Deloitte uses the snapshot data to help leaders figure out development and succession plans and study performance patterns.

This graph shows a small team. Three people are flagged as ready for promotion today, and one is thought to be at risk for low performance. One Deloitte unit put 1,000 employees on a grid like this, color-coding the data by job level. And they set up the grid so that when you clicked on a dot, you called up the details of that person's performance snapshots. You can see how this would give managers a lot of useful information. In contrast, here's an example of the 30,000-foot view you get with forced-ranking systems: that old, familiar bell curve.

It's not nearly as helpful. Here everyone has been reduced to a one number – a 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. And often workers are force-fit into categories to meet arbitrary quotas for each ranking. Deloitte wanted to do more than just measure and reward performance; it wanted to improve performance. For ideas on how to reach that final objective, the firm looked at the practices of its best team leaders.

The best leaders have regular check-ins with team members about current projects. So Deloitte decided to establish these weekly conversations across the organization. Leaders use them to clarify what's expected, what great work looks like, and how each person can excel. The check-ins are not considered additional work. They are the team leader’s work. Why make the check-ins weekly? So that priorities don't become vague and merely aspirational. And so that coaching stays focused on the near term, not on past performance.

Deloitte's research shows a direct correlation between the frequency of conversations and the engagement of team members. Because leaders have many demands on their time, team members are responsible for initiating the check-ins. To help get conversations rolling. Deloitte has created a self-assessment tool that allows employees to explore their strengths and present them to the leaders. To recap: Deloitte believes that the purpose of a performance management system is to see performance accurately, to reward it accordingly, and to inspire even better performance in the future.

To support these goals, the firm has created new evaluation and coaching rituals. By using frequent immediate conversations about performance, Deloitte has shifted from a focus on the past to a focus on the future. The new system is radical because it does away with some long-cherished elements of performance management: Cascading objectives, annual reviews, and 360-degree feedback tools.

Instead, the focus is on speed, agility, and constant learning. Deloitte’s new approach overcomes one of the biggest problems of traditional rating systems: They're one-dimensional. To understand performance, we need to look at many factors. We want our organizations to know us, and we want to know ourselves at work, and that information can't be compressed into a single number. The question is not “What is the simplest view of you?” It’s “What is the richest view?”



本篇文章主題管理員工