未來領導人的關鍵技能

The Crucial Skill for Tomorrow's Leaders
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管理思想領導人分享自己對於未來領導人必備技能的看法。

未來領導人需要的最重要技能是什麼?

安吉爾.卡布瑞拉博士(美國雷鳥全球管理學院院長):或許領導人需要的最重要事物,就是追隨者的信任,對吧?沒有追隨者,就沒有領導人。任何追隨者都是基於信念而相信領導人,大致可說是放棄自己的判斷,而信任他人的判斷。信任就是你擁有的一切。它很難建立,很容易失去。在這個新的通訊工具時代,你不斷曝光,無論好壞,我認為領導人今後最重要的工具,可能就是如何使用你能掌握的所有工具,來建立信任,維護信任,不要失去信任。

比爾.喬治(哈佛商學院教授):其實我認為領導與技能無關。關鍵在於領導人的性格和內在。我認為,領導人最重要的課題是,在真實的自我中找到真實的聲音。然後,這個人就能展現真誠,與人們建立連結關係。但這來自於探索和理解一個人的人生故事,包括他們經歷過的艱困時期,處理傷害性情緒等事情。然後懷著目的感、熱情和使命感,來看待自己要用什麼方式領導。因為如果你不知道自己要去哪裡,別人為什麼要跟隨你?所以,每個領導人都必須明白,自己領導的目的是什麼?我想在這裡完成什麼?我能否把人們團結起來,讓他們一致朝這個共同目的而努力?然後,我們能否用一套共同的價值觀來領導?讓組織中的每個人,都能與這些價值觀保持一致。

戴西.道林(摩根士丹利公司領導發展部門執行董事):我認為高效能的領導人必須具備兩個條件。這是非常個人的答案,也許不是學術性的答案。第一,他們需要同理心。他們必須了解周圍的人。了解他們來自哪裡。因為如果他們不能建立這種人際關係,並真正了解自己領導或共事的人,我認為他們就無法有效地領導。他們就無法理解人們的動機,也無法讓他們很振奮地看待,領導人為組織或公司設定的方向。所以我認為同理心是要件之一。而且我認為,領導人要毫不放鬆地培養身邊人的能力。換句話說,我認為領導人必須是老師。

安迪.澤利克(哈佛大學甘迺迪學院公共政策講師):我認為,未來的領導人仍會需要他們一直擁有的東西。那就是投身促進他人的利益。投身在他們的社區、他們的社會、他們的國家、他們的組織中,無論是用什麼單位來看。我認為這是領導的一個永恆面向。

巴蒂亞.米山.維森菲爾德(紐約大學史登商學院教授):我認為,領導人在下達指令時的最重要特性,可能是養成習慣一定要解釋原因。解釋為什麼要請某人做某件事,為什麼自己要做某件事,這會迫使你找出驅動自身行為或要求的背後的價值觀。這樣會讓你確保自己有傳達這些價值觀,有向其他人溝通說明這些價值觀。這創造了當責制的發展,也就是你要求某人做某件事的原因,這些理由、解釋、背後的價值觀,都會與實務做法保持一致。所以我認為,真正去解釋為什麼,可能是領導人要培養的最重要技能。

伊凡.維滕貝(Google全球領導發展部門主管):我認為,未來領導人最重要的技能之一或行為,就是好奇心。我認為這個世界非常複雜。隨著領導人進行愈來愈多的跨界工作,包括跨越組織邊界、跨越國界等,唯一能有效做到這一點的方法,就是了解自己並不是什麼都懂。以好奇和探究的態度,來面對不同的環境、新的地方,不要有預設立場。好奇心是我認為很重要的技能。

艾倫.蘭格博士(哈佛大學教授):不令人意外的是,由於我已研究「專注當下」三十多年,所以我認為,未來的領導人會因為變得更加專注當下,而獲得巨大成功。我研究的專注當下,是個可以注意到新事物的簡單過程。當你注意到新事物時,就會讓你活在當下。當你活在當下,你就能夠善用機會,並避開尚未出現的危險。擁有專注當下的領導人所產生的淨結果,就是不會再有人把昨天的解決方案,應用在今天的問題上。

史考特.史努克(哈佛商學院副教授):未來領導人需要的最重要技能,是清楚了解自己的使命和目的。你會看到許多領導人具備稱職的技術,技能非常好,包括技術性的知識和技能,或是他們所在行業或工藝的技能高超。但就是不確定要達成什麼目的。為什麼?這是更大的問題。我們發現,所有學生都在進行這種探索。高階主管也在探索。一直向下延伸到小學生身上。我的意思是指尋找意義,我為什麼要做我正在做的事情?所以對我來說,明確的目的,是未來領導人所需技能的基礎和基石。

(劉純佑譯)


What is the single most important skill that the leaders of the future need?

Dr. Angel Cabrera (Presdent, Thunderbird School of Global Management): Probably the single most important thing a leader has is trust of followers. Right? There is not a leader if there are no followers. And any follower takes a leap of faith in pretty much spending your own judgment and trusting the judgment of somebody else. Trust is all you have. It's hard to build. It's easy to lose. And in the era of new communications tools, where you're constantly being exposed, for good and for bad, I think the probably the most important tool that a leader will have going forward, is how to use all the tools at your disposal to build trust, to preserve trust, and not lose it.

Bill George (Professor, Harvard Business School): Actually I think leadership is not about skills. It's about the character of the leader and the person within. And I think the most important leader has to do, is find their authentic voice in their authentic self. And then a person can be genuine and can establish connected relationships with people. But that comes from an exploration and understanding of one's life story, the difficult times they've had, dealing with things like destructive emotions. And then having a sense of purpose, passion, and, mission of how they want to lead. Because if you don't know where you're going, why would I want to follow you? So every leader has to have a sense of, what is my purpose in leading? What do I want to accomplish here? And can I rally people and align them around this common sense of purpose? And then can we lead with a common set of values? So that everyone in the organization is congruent with what those values are.

Daisy Wademan Dowling (Executive Director, Leadership Development at Morgan Stanley): I think leaders can be effective unless they have two things. And this is a very personal answer. Maybe not an academic answer. And the first is that they need empathy. So they have to understand the people around them. Understand where they're coming from. Because if they can't have that human connection, and really understand the people they're leading or working alongside, I don't think they're going to be able to lead effectively. They won't be able to understand people's motivations. They won't be able to get them excited about the direction that they set for the organization or for the company. So I think empathy is one thing. And I think just a relentless desire to build capacity in the people around them. So in other words, I think leaders need to be teachers.

Andy Zelleke (Lecture in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School): I think the leaders of the future will continue to need what they've always had. Which is a devotion to the interests of others. In their community, their society, their nation, their organization, whatever the unit of analysis is. And I think that's a timeless aspect of leadership.

Batia Mishan Wiesenfeld (Professor, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, NYU): I think probably the most important trait when a leader is giving direction is to get into the habit of always explaining why. So the act of giving an explanation of why you're asking someone to do something, why you're doing something yourself, forces you to identify the underlying values that are driving your behavior or your request. They allow you to ensure that you’re conveying those, you're communicating those to others. And it creates a dynamic of accountability where the reason that you're asking something to do something -- the reasons, the explanation, the values that are underlying them – get aligned with the practices. And so I think actually explaining why is probably the most important skill for leaders to develop.

Evan Wittenberg (Head of Global Leadership Development, Google, Inc.): I think one of the most important skills for leaders of the future, or behaviors, is curiosity. I think the world is terribly complex. And as leaders are working more across boundaries -- across organizational boundaries, across countries, et cetera -- the only way to do that effectively is to understand that you don't know everything. And to be curious and inquisitive about different environments, new places, not make assumptions. So curiosity would be a big one for me.

Dr. Ellen Langer (Professor, Harvard University): Not surprisingly, since I've been studying mindfulness for over 30 years, I believe that the leaders of the future would prosper enormously by becoming more mindful. Mindfulness as I study it is a very simple process of noticing new things. When you notice new things, that puts you in the present. When you're in the present, that allows you to take advantage of opportunities and to avoid the dangers not yet arisen. The net result of having mindful leaders is that you'll no longer have people applying yesterday's solutions to today's problems.

Scott Snook (Associate Professor, Harvard Business School): The most important skill that leaders of the future need is a clear sense of their calling, of their purpose. You see so many leaders that are technically competent. Wonderfully skilled, either in technical knowledge and skills, or whatever their trade or the craft is. But just not sure in the service of what. Why? The bigger questions. And we find this search in all of our students. We find it in executives. All the way down through elementary school. I mean the search for meaning, why am I doing what I'm doing? So that clarity of purpose for me is the base, the bedrock, of what leaders of the future need.



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