商業中最被評價過高的價值觀

The Most Overrated Value in Business
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管理思想領導人分享自己對商業價值觀的看法。

一、強納森.喬斯林(Jonathan Gosling),英國艾賽司特大學商學院教授

我認為在商業中,最被評價過高的價值觀之一,就是忠誠度的價值。這適用於很多不同地方。其中一部分,顯然是必須不忠於某些行為不端的同儕團體,而應忠於任務目標。但我認為,這點對於領導人應該更深刻,尤其是他們要代表組織內的人員,在主觀上必須與他們結合為一體。但他們也必須從組織外部向內看,在組織裡代表外部利害關係人,這有時是要他們客觀地看待員工和同事。這讓他們處於棘手位置。因為他們想在主觀上與自己的員工團結起來,但多少又要把他們視為物體或資源。所以有一種內在的必要性,更強烈地說,就是在領導上有背叛的必要性。我認為,如果沒有為此做好準備,沒有資源處理這個情況,這勢必會是艱難的職位。

二、卡莉.格蘭傑(Kari Granger),Sunergos公司的領導力發展專家

我對這一點的想法是,所有價值觀都很棒,對吧?這是我們重視的事物。它能成為價值觀,必然有原因。對於評價過高的價值觀,我思考更多的是其中沒有運用到的價值。許多組織談論價值觀,卻沒能落實,這個價值觀就被高估了。單靠價值觀聲明是不夠的。

三、布伊.希威爾(Buie Seawell),美國丹佛大學丹尼爾斯商學院教授

我認為,效率是商業中最被評價過高的價值。你知道這有點像是我們必須專注,我們必須關注,我們必須完成事情。甚至同時處理多件事情,也被認為是有效率的。商業需要的是創意,是創新。效率未必能帶來創新思維,或創意互動。以有效率的河流為例。它不應限制在渠道裡,兩邊都用水泥固定,讓水快速流過。它應該是蜿蜒曲折、有水池、有迴流的河流。有生命在其中。那是創意和新鮮事物產生的地方。注重效率,是商業美德中最無用的。

四、強納森.杜琴(Jonathan Doochin),哈佛大學助理院長

我認為最被評價過高的商業價值觀,就是追求卓越的想法,而不去思考我們為何要追求卓越。也就是要拿到A的想法。我們踏實走過人生,讀完中學,讀完高中,讀完大學。我們能做的最好事情,就是拿到A。但很多時候,我們不了解什麼力量驅使我們拿A?為什麼A很重要?我們進入企業界,嘗試做同樣的事情。我們想盡可能拿到最高分。在這種情況下,我們常試圖達成我們可以達成的目標,但沒有思考這長期會如何影響我們。

這麼做是否會讓我們最快樂。這是否確實符合我們的價值觀。這是否最值得。基本的情況是,我們若不思考這些,就會浪費很多年,去追求一個實際上不是真正能打造自己的目標。這可能不會讓我們成為最快樂的人。而我們達到那個目標,例如對很多人來說,是想取得一些財務成就。

我們達到那個目標時,可能會失去許多其他東西,因為我們把它們擱置一旁。因為當時我們沒有考慮家庭,沒有考慮個人生活,也沒有考慮所有這些事情。等我們到了20、30、40或50歲,取決於你所處的人生階段,才發現自己拋棄許多東西,只為了追求一個並不那麼重要的目標。

這表示我們原本認為的成功,原本認為的答案,實際上不是答案。因此重要的是,應退一步反思人生,思考對我們重要的事情。然後回過來面對現在的情況,自問這個工作是否真的符合你想要的?

五、佛德瑞克.霍奇斯(Maj. Gen. Frederick B. Hodges),美國陸軍少將

我不曉得有任何價值觀被評價過高。我認為,最常遭到誤解的可能是忠誠。忠誠是我們重視的軍隊七大價值觀之一,但它可能會被誤解為是對上級的個人忠誠,而上級可能會用它來讓你做一些事情,或阻止你做一些事情,但其實,我們的忠誠是對組織的忠誠。

每當士兵入伍或軍官晉升時,都要宣誓支持和捍衛美國憲法,軍人接受任命時就要如此。這種忠誠的對象是美國憲法,我們抓住每個機會增強這種忠誠。如果你正確安排這種忠誠,就可以避免做某件事卻落入陷阱,把對特定上級的忠誠,與對機構的忠誠混為一談。如果你能清楚說明這一點,就能更輕易度過艱難的道德困境。

六、瑪麗.詹提爾(Mary Gentile),貝伯森學院資深研究學者

思考哪個價值觀在商業和商業領導人之中最被評價過高,是很有意思的問題。我覺得我們非常強調,商業領導人在解決問題時必須迅速且果斷。其實我認為,對商業領導人很重要的是,要能重新建構問題,重新闡述問題,甚至重新組織問題。你可能會因此發現,原本以為受限的選擇,變得更加廣泛。你可以選擇以平衡美德、價值觀和經濟目標的方式來行動,而你之前原本不覺得自己有這個選擇。

(劉純佑譯)


Management thought leaders share their ideas on values in business.

1. Jonathan Gosling, Professor, University of Exeter Business School

OK, in business, I think one of the most overrated values is a value of loyalty. This works in many different ways. Part of it is clearly some points have to be disloyal to a peer group that's misbehaving in some way and stay true to the taskly objectives that are there. But this, I think, runs more deeply for leaders, particularly, who have to both represents the people within their organization, they have to feel in some sense subjectively united with. But they also have to look from outside the organization and represent the outside stakeholders for the organization, which sometimes means they have to look at their employees and their colleagues objectively. And this puts them in a difficult position. They both want to be subjectively united with their people, and yet treat them, in some sense, as objects or resources. So there's a built-in necessity for, to put it strongly, a necessity for betrayal in leadership. And I think if one's not prepared for that, doesn't have the resources for it, it's going to be a tough job.

2. Kari Granger, Leadership Development Specialist, Sunergos

If I think about it, all values are great, right? It's what we value. It is a value for a reason. I think more what's overrated is the espoused value without the value also in use. So when many organizations speak of values, yet lacks the implementation, that's overrated. The value statements in and of themselves.

3. Buie Seawell, Professor, Daniels School of Business, University of Denver

I think efficiency is the value that is most overrated in business. There's sort of , you know we've got to focus, we've got to pay attention, we've got to get things done. Even multitasking is thought of as efficient. What we need in business is creativity, is innovation. And efficiency doesn't necessarily produce innovative thinking or creative interaction. Think of an efficient river. It isn't one that is channelized and has cement on both sides of it so the water goes through quickly. It's one that meanders, that has pools, that has back waters. And that's where life takes place. That's where creativity, where newness comes about. The focus on efficiency is the least useful of the virtues of business.

4. Jonathan Doochin, Assistant Dean, Harvard University

I think in business the most overrated value is the idea of excelling without thing about why we're excelling. So the idea of getting in A. So we step through life and we go through middle school, we go through high school, we go through college. And the best thing that we can do is get an A. But oftentimes we don't understand what is it that drive us to get an A ? Why is an A important? And we get to the corporate world, and we're trying the same thing. We want to try to get the highest grade we possibly can. And in that setting, we're often trying to achieve things that we can achieve, but we're not thinking about how that affects us in the long term.

If that makes us happiest. If that actually aligns with our values. If it is most worthwhile. And in essence, what happens is, without thinking about it, we leave behind many years of going after a goal that might not actually be building who we are. That might not help us be the happiest. And we reach that goal. Let's say, for many, it's trying to achieve some financial success.

When we reach that goal, we might have lost many other things because we put them aside. Because at the time we weren't thinking about family, we weren't thinking about personal life, we weren't thinking about all these things. And we end up being 20, 30, 40, or 50, depending on what stage of life you're in, and finding that we've left a lot behind all for something that really wasn't that important.

It represented what we thought would be success and we thought would be the answer, but it wasn't actually the answer. And so it's very important to step back, reflect on life, think about what's important to us. And then come back to the situation and ask yourself, does this job really align with you?

5. Maj. Gen. Frederick B. Hodges, U.S. Army

I don't know that there's a value that's overrated. I think one that maybe is most often misunderstood is loyalty. Loyalty is one of the army's seven values that we cherish, but it can be misunderstood if it's interpreted as meaning personal loyalty to a superior where is superior might then use that to cause you to do something or prevent you from doing something, when in fact our loyalty is to the organization.

We take an oath to support and defend the Constitution of the United States every time a soldier enlists or when an officer is promoted, whenever he or she receives their commission. That loyalty is to the Constitution of the United States, and we reinforce that at every opportunity. So if you keep that loyalty lined up correctly, it enables you to avoid falling into a trap of doing something and then confusing loyalty to a particular boss versus loyalty to the institution. And if you can keep that straight, it's much easier to navigate through tougher ethical situations.

6. Mary Gentile, Senior Research Scholar, Babson College

It's interesting to think about which value may be most overrated in business and among business leaders. I think we put a lot of emphasis on the idea that business leaders need to be quickly decisive in problem solving. And I actually think it becomes very important for business leaders to be able to re-frame problems, to restate problems, and even to reformulate them. You might find that the choices that you thought you were restricted to can become much broader. And you have options to act in a way that balances virtues and values and economic goals in a way that you may not have felt you had that option.



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