管理跨文化價值觀

Managing Values Across Cultures
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管理思想領導人分享對企業價值觀的看法。

克里斯多福.阿德金斯,美國威廉與瑪麗學院梅森商學院大學部主任

Christopher Adkins: Director, Undergraduate Program, Mason School of Business, The College of William & Mary

我認為,領導人處理不同文化的價值觀時,應該從所有人類的核心價值觀著手,那就是同理心。我認為同理心是指,站在他人立場看待和感受事情。具有同理心的領導人,可進入任何一種文化,而不是從自己的價值觀著手,他們能真正與人親近,無論是在商業環境下、在當地村莊或不同的工廠裡。無論身在何處,他們都能真正從傾聽開始,帶著同理心傾聽,不只是聽對方說的話,也包括那些話背後的含義,並看出非言語的訊息。

展現同理心的能力,其實首先應著重理解,還要建立最初的連結。如果領導人了解誰將參與這個專案或行動方案,也以此為基礎開始建立關係,接下來一切都會順利展開。如果同理心在整個參與過程中都存在,無論這個專案或方案是什麼都存在同理心,你就能在感性和理性方面都贏得人們支持,因為你能夠理解他們。

曼索.賈維丹,美國雷鳥全球管理學院全球心態研究所教授暨主任

Mansour Javidan, Professor and Director, Global Mindset Institute, Thunderbirds School of Global Management

領導人應如何處理文化差異及其對價值觀的影響,這確實是日益重要的議題,因為領導人日益需要與來自世界不同地區、不同文化的人往來。首先,不要太快判斷他人的價值觀,而應先了解這個價值觀是什麼,以及背後的歷史原因。價值觀會逐漸演變發展,隨著在世界不同地區生活的人而發展,因此人們在生活中體驗不同經歷時,自然會產生不同的價值觀。

首先要了解,不同的原因,導致不同文化的人形成不同的價值觀。下一步是真正的關鍵,那就是採取平衡行動。在全球情境下,領導人的職責是弄清楚—而這沒有簡單的解決方案—是要弄清楚,如何平衡不同的觀點和做事方式?

馬修.海沃德,美國科羅拉多大學波德校區李茲商學院副教授

Matthew Hayward, Associate Professor, Leads School of Business, University of Colorado, Boulder

領導人應該把價值觀當成不容更動的。美國高階主管的價值觀,應該與菲律賓、台灣或澳大利亞(我的家鄉)的高階主管一樣。應該要調整因應的,是在這些不同國家展現的文化智慧。

例如,在菲律賓這樣的地方做生意,很難不面對賄賂官員的問題。身為美國大型組織的高階主管,行賄是不可接受的行為。但領導人也必須具備文化智慧,體認到這是那個商業環境的關鍵環節,而且可採取行動來處理這個問題。例如,社區專案和贊助活動可造福社區,而不是讓個人受惠,即使必須以那名官員的名字為體育設施命名。

布伊.希威爾,美國丹佛大學丹尼爾商學院教授

Buie Seawell, Professor, Daniels School of Business, University of Denver

領導人若想處理不同文化的價值觀差異,就應採取謙虛的態度,也就是提問而非斷言的態度。這是要請人們談論自己關心的事情、自己的價值觀是什麼。這體現了尊重,也讓接觸不同文化的領導人有機會思考,這與自己最珍視的價值觀之間的關係。提問是跨文化溝通的關鍵。

瑪麗.詹提爾,美國貝伯森學院資深研究學者

Mary Gentile, Senior Research Scholar, Babson College

我的工作是要創造一種思考、教學、實施我們價值觀的方式,這種方式是基於行動,不是根據嚴謹的分析,而當我去世界其他地方時,這是切入這個問題的一個很棒的方式。我首先採取的前提是,你已經擁有一套核心價值觀,有一套高層次的價值觀,或者可說是「超級規範」,在不同文化之間廣泛共享的,於是這議題比較不是要把價值觀,強加在來自某個文化的人,而在於如何實現我們廣泛共享的那些價值觀,但我們的文化背景可能讓它難以實施?一開始就是要以我們共事的人最好的一面為基礎來發展,然後試圖再次擴大他們的選項。

詹比耶洛.彼崔格里利,歐洲工商管理學院教授

Gianpiero Petriglieri, Professor, INSEAD

我認為,領導人必須很注意跨文化之間體現的差異。他們必須尊重這些差異。他們必須理解這些差異,透過沉浸在其中,而不是通過道聽途說來理解。但我也認為,領導人不應該以此為藉口,來逃避對自己的行為負責。他們也應反思,自家企業的文化如何形塑員工的想法、感受和行為,目前這對部分員工的影響力,與他們原籍國家的影響力一樣大,甚至更大。

卡莉.格蘭傑,Sunergos公司的領導力發展專家

Kari Granger, Leadership Development Specialist, Sunergos

我認為,我們在檢視差異和價值觀時,常會陷入一些立場。很容易陷入不同的觀點或立場。但人們採取立場,是為了實現這些基本價值觀,或他們致力要達成的基本事物。因此我認為,對領導人很重要的是,應不斷深入挖掘。為什麼這對你很重要?為什麼這對你很重要?為什麼這對你很重要?一直探究到最根本的原因。根據我的經驗,當你真正掌握到最根本的原因時,其實就沒有太大不同。人類文化有某種東西,根本的東西,像是讓我的家人有美好的未來,這是相當根本的東西,像是擁有信任的關係,我認為只要我們探究得夠深入,就能找到對各方都很好的解決方案。

亞圖洛.康多,中美洲商學院教授

Arturo Condo, Professor, INCAE Business School

跨文化的價值觀差異,是我日常要面對的情況,因為我們拉丁美洲是世界上很孤立的地區。因此我們會向內看,不分享自己是什麼樣的人,也不在乎或不想了解其他地區的價值觀。因此我認為,第一個也是最重要的是,要察覺和關心。第二是平衡行動,也就是要牢記自己的價值觀,同時尊重和包容其他人的價值觀,包括你組織裡的其他人、你的合作伙伴、你的客戶,也包括你在世界各地的連絡人。

(劉純佑譯)


Management thought leaders share their ideas on values in business.

Christopher Adkins: Director, Undergraduate Program, Mason School of Business, The College of William & Mary

I think leaders should handle different values amongst cultures by beginning with just, what I think's, a core value for all human beings, which is empathy. And I define empathy as simply seeing and feeling as another person. So a leader who has empathy can come into any culture, and instead of beginning with their values, can really get close to the people, whether it's in a business context, in a local village context, in a different factory context. Wherever it may be, they can actually begin by listening and kind of empathic listening where it's not just listening to the words, but the meaning behind the words and picking up on the non-verbals.

And so the ability to be empathetic really, first, focuses on understanding, but also making that first connection. And if leaders have that understanding about who is going to be involved in this particular project or initiative, and then also can start to build relationships that foundation is there. And everything comes from that. If the empathy remains throughout the entire engagement with whatever that project or initiative is, you'll get the people's hearts and you'll get the people's minds because you'll be able to understand them as well.

Mansour Javidan, Professor and Director, Global Mindset Institute, Thunderbirds School of Global Management

The issue of how leaders should deal with cultural differences and their impact on values is really an issue that will be increasingly important because leaders will be dealing with people more and more from different parts of the world, different cultures. Step number one is, instead of making quick judgments about other people's values, one has to understand what the value is and what is the historical reason for that. Values evolve as people live their lives in different parts of the world, so naturally when people go through different experiences in their lives, they come up with different values.

So the starting point is to understand that there are different reasons why people from different cultures develop different values. And then the next step, which is really critical, is a balancing act. The job of a leader in a global context is to figure out -- and there is no easy solution to this -- to figure out how do you balance different perspectives and different ways of doing things?

Matthew Hayward, Associate Professor, Leads School of Business, University of Colorado, Boulder

Leadership should treat values as non-negotiables. That the values for an executive in the United States should be the same values for the executive in the Philippines, in Taiwan, or in Australia, where I come from. What should be adapted is the cultural intelligence that's shown in these different countries.

So for example, it's very difficult to do business in a place like the Philippines without confronting the question of bribes to officials. And as an executive of a large American organization, it's unacceptable to accept those bribes. But one must also have the cultural intelligence to recognize that that's critical part of the business environment and that there are things that can be done to address it. For example, community projects and sponsorship for concerns that are benefiting the community rather than the individual, even if one has to call, say, a sports facility after that official.

Buie Seawell, Professor, Daniels School of Business, University of Denver

Leaders can handle differences in values across cultures if they assume a humble attitude, an attitude of questioning rather than asserting. That is, asking people to talk about what they care about, what their values are. It shows such respect and it gives leader engaging with a different culture the opportunity to think about how that relates to the values that he or she holds most dear. Questioning is the key to cross cultural communication.

Mary Gentile, Senior Research Scholar, Babson College

The work I do on creating a way of thinking about and teaching about and enacting our values based on action rather than strictly on analysis has been a lovely way into that question when I go to other parts of the world. And I start from the premise that you already have a core set of values and that there are a set of high level values, hyper-norms if you will, that are widely shared across cultures, then the issue becomes less about imposing values on anyone from one culture or another and rather on, how do we implement those values that we do widely share but our cultural context may make it very difficult to enact? And so it starts from a place where we are building on the best in the people that we're working with. And we're trying to expand again, their options.

Gianpiero Petriglieri, Professor, INSEAD

I think leaders need to be very mindful of differences embodied across cultures. They need to honor them. They possibly need to understand them by immersion rather than hearsay. But I also think they shouldn't use them as an excuse to avoid responsibility for their own behavior. Also reflectiveness on what are the ways in which the culture of their enterprise is actually shaping people's thinking, feeling, and behaving as much, if not more, for some of the people that are employed in corporations today, than their countries of origin.

Kari Granger, Leadership Development Specialist, Sunergos

I think when we look at differences and values, it's more we get stuck on positions. So it's easy to get stuck on a different point of view or a position one takes. But people take positions to fulfill on those fundamental values or their fundamental commitment that they have. So I think it's important as leaders that we dig deeper and deeper. You know, why is that important to you? And why is that important to you? and why is that important to you? Until we get at the most fundamental level. And in my experience, when you get really fundamental, it's actually not that different. There's something about a human culture in which, fundamentally, something about having a great future for my family -- something quite fundamental -- being in a trusting relationship, that I think if we get deep enough that we can find solutions that are really great for all parties.

Arturo Condo, Professor, INCAE Business School

Well, differences in values across cultures is kind of my day-to-day thing because in Latin America we are a very isolated part of the world. And as such, we look inwards. And don't really share what we are, but also don't mind or don't care to learn about values from other regions. I think that's the first and most important, awareness and consideration. And the second is the balancing act of being mindful of your values and at the same time respecting and including the values of others in your organization, in your partners, in your clients, in just the contacts you may have or make around the world.



本篇文章主題跨文化管理