擁有正確價值觀的領導人

Leaders with Values
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管理思想領導人分享他們對商業上價值觀的看法。受訪人包括:亞圖洛.康多(Arturo Condo)、大衛.洛克(David Rock)、布伊.希威爾(Buie Seawell)、艾琳.黎曼(Erin Lehman)、克里斯多福.阿德金斯(Christopher Adkins)、佛德瑞克.霍奇斯少將(Maj. Gen. Frederick B. Hodges)、蘇珊.克蘭西(Susan Clancy)和強納森.喬斯林(Jonathan Gosling)。

請告訴我一位抱持正確價值觀,並把這些價值觀教導給他人的領導人。

一、亞圖洛.康多(Arturo Condo);中美洲商學院教授

好的,我認為他們是完美的領導人。但我想,有一位我欽佩的領導人,我尤其認為他是個好榜樣,因為他和我的文化背景不同,那就是李光耀,他過去長期擔任新加坡總理。我最欣賞他的兩個價值觀之一,就是很強的務實理念。他這位政治領導人,並不會輕率地判斷或預設立場,認為該如何達成他為國民追求的目標,把這當成比目標本身還重要。

基本上,他能夠—這是第二個價值觀—保持謙虛,就某種程度來說,是智識上的謙虛。也就是能夠改變,而且若有必要,可以改變很多次,尤其是當你成功時。這很難做到。第三,也就是你要我談到教導價值觀的部分,他在新加坡培養了好幾個世代的政治領導人,他們專注、務實、誠實,這實在很難、很難做到。而且很少見。

二、大衛.洛克(David Rock);神經領導力協會創辦人

我最喜歡的一位領導人,是鄧白氏公司執行長莎拉.麥修(Sara Matthew)。她擁有不可思議的智慧,但也很願意展現自己的弱點,身為領導人仍持續學習。或許這是因為她的成長歷程,或許是因為她曾短暫擔任共同執行長,觀察如何擔任這項職務。但她確實有能力學習,接受回饋意見,並專注在領導方面真正重要的事物。

三、布伊.希威爾(Buie Seawell);美國丹佛大學丹尼爾斯商學院教授

我想到我已故的岳父查爾斯.比爾德,來回應你問到擁有正確價值觀領導人的問題。他建立波嵐電鋸公司,是非常成功的商人。但他也獲得哥倫比亞大學經濟學博士學位,並在路易斯安那州的聖瑪麗學院教倫理學。他將自己教的倫理道德觀,引進自己創辦的企業。他後來非常富裕。

但他的富裕,創造了一家員工樂於去工作的公司,員工覺得公司公平對待他們,給他們一個充實自身生命的地方,而不僅充實了比爾德的生命。他以前常告訴我—因為我們兩人都教商業倫理學,所以才跟我說,商業倫理只有一個主題,那就是分配正義。他一生都致力創造財富,並公平分配財富。他是共和黨人。我是民主黨人。但我們彼此敬愛。

四、艾琳.黎曼(Erin Lehman);哈佛大學公共領導力中心資深研究員

當我想到一位我敬佩的領導人,認為他擁有正確的價值觀,那會是像柯林頓總統和歐巴馬總統那樣的人,我很欣賞他們熱誠接納人民。他們毫不猶豫採納其他的觀點。他們採納所有不同的觀點,以某種方式激勵人民參與,並審慎思考。這就是我在領導人身上尋找的特質,要能啟發他人,一起投入他們正在從事的任何活動,無論是政治、商業或其他事務。我欣賞的就是心胸開闊、知道如何妥善應對他人的領導人。

五、克里斯多福.阿德金斯(Christopher Adkins);美國威廉瑪麗學院梅森商學院大學部主任

當我思考一位擁有正確價值觀的領導人時,想到了過去一年半遇到的一位新領導人。他的名字是葛瑞格.范柯克。他推出「社區企業解決方案」,採取微型寄售模式。這就像是小額信貸。你提供人們小額貸款。但在這麼做時,通常是提供貸款給可能不知道如何花這筆錢的人,或者他們可能缺乏商業訓練,不知如何投資這筆錢。而且你假設他們擁有產品或商品,可以出外購買和轉售。

微型寄售其實是一種更為協作和共享的模式,讓你寄售商品。你提供他們商品去銷售。葛瑞格做法的聰明之處,不只在於這個模式,還包括他在這整個模式中與人們互動的方式。關鍵在於這改變了很多地方女性創業者的生活,包括瓜地馬拉、厄瓜多和薩爾瓦多等地。但他並不認為可以只靠自己做到,他知道需要各種人才組成的團隊,包括提供他財務支持的人,以及實際把商業技能引進當地的大學生。

當我想到葛瑞格的領導技能時,他擁有不可思議的能力,可以做到我所說的同理心「貼近」和「拉遠」。所謂同理心貼近,是指他會很親近與他合作的任何對象。他若是跟大學生共事,就會和他們共度時光。他若是在村子裡,就會和村民在一起。花時間和他們在一起,不僅有助於他們理解或建立人際關係,還可協助他思考,應該在當地銷售哪些產品,或者我們需要哪些產品,才最能夠協助學生弄清楚一些事情,像是如何改善銷售方式,或如何訓練女性創業者。

同理心貼近有助於建立關係,深入理解對方。但對於社會創業,或對任何領導人來說,關鍵不僅在於個人的改變,也在於推動大規模變革。因此他能夠拉遠視角,真正看到各個制度,例如在瓜地馬拉之類的地方,造成當前情況的是什麼制度,以及人們如何可以有更好的生計。葛瑞格做的事情,最終是從這種同理心出發,同理心讓他與人們親近,建立信任。然後他拉遠視角,嘗試了解有哪些可擴大推動的解決方案。他提出客觀的目標,並衡量那些目標。我認為,這些讓他成為優秀的領導人。

六、佛德瑞克.霍奇斯少將(Maj. Gen. Frederick B. Hodges);美國陸軍

我曾在大衛.裴卓斯將軍麾下任職兩年,那是很棒的經歷。當時他擔任美軍第101空降師的師長,而伊拉克戰爭才開始。我是他的旅指揮官之一。他樹立了個人勇氣的榜樣,他親臨戰場各處,到我們所在的任何地方。我們分散在伊拉克北部各地。他親自去查看士兵生活和作戰的環境。他也樹立了創新的個人典範,這清楚顯示他對我們所有人的期望是什麼。

冒險、主動積極,用不同方式做事,以便與伊拉克人民建立關係。幫助伊拉克領導階層回復正常運作,包括民間領導人,例如理解伊拉克北部遜尼派部落的特性。我們應如何運作的這個層面,成效就反映在第101空降師在伊拉克北部的成功。

同樣的,這是裴卓斯將軍展現勇氣和創新的個人典範。他也很擅長溝通,可以對不同軍階的每個人,都清楚表達他對我們的期望。他也不屈不撓。許多領導人都不屈不撓,對你要求嚴格。但他在不屈不撓之外,也以身作則,親自去做他期望我們做到的事情,然後尋求資源。我從未見過任何人能像他那樣,找到資源去協助你完成你想做到的事情。

七、蘇珊.克蘭西(Susan Clancy);中美洲商學院副教授

我常思考我敬佩哪些領導人,哪些領導人擁有我想教給學生的價值觀。我最先想到的是約翰.費茲傑羅.甘迺迪,他1961年到1963年擔任美國總統。其實是他創辦了,或與人合辦我目前任教的商學院。他或許不是完美的人,他本身有一些有缺陷的個人價值觀。但以他想要改善社會的傾向來說,我認為他的方向正確。

我認為,一切可總結於他最常被引用的幾句話。例如他說:「不要問你的國家能為你做些什麼,要問你可以為你的國家做些什麼。」此外,他有一句很棒的話,我們提供給我們所有的商學院學生遵循:「一個偉大的社會就是,男性和女性企業人士,都認真思考自己的責任和行動的後果。」因為這些原因,我非常敬佩他。

八、強納森.喬斯林(Jonathan Gosling);英國艾賽司特大學商學院教授

在思考這個問題時,我想到了一個人,他對我和我的工作產生最大的影響,那就是保羅.雷根牧師。他創辦和經營一個組織,名為「紐翰復興計畫」,地點在東倫敦市區。他總是會回應新出現的需求。他展開這項計畫,是因為當時伊迪.阿敏將大量亞洲人趕出烏干達。

他打開他教堂的大門和自家大門,說服不同信仰和宗教的其他人仿效,為這些人提供安身之所。他做的不僅止於此。他們隨著挑戰改變而迅速行動,例如,從斯里蘭卡湧進幾波新移民,他們迅速用不同方式回應,以滿足這些需求。他透過很前瞻且複雜的回應做法,建立一個組織,首先雇用了我,這個組織是「紐翰衝突與變革計畫」,設法處理發生衝突的地區,特別是那個地區裡的鄰里衝突和種族衝突。

不僅要試圖解決問題,讓問題消失,而是要讓涉入其中的人們參與,以試圖理解,是哪些更複雜的力量造成他們之間的衝突,或許最好將鬥爭導向其他方面,例如社會不公正。保羅.雷根目前七十多歲,在一、兩年前退休。最近,他熱烈支持在英國相當成功、稱為「可維生工資」的全國運動。

這項運動確實為低薪工作者發聲,讓他們有機會發表意見,尤其是針對倫敦市的銀行,這些銀行將清潔合約外包給一些公司,而這些公司雇用許多非法移民,以極低的工資雇用他們,保障也很少。保羅設法召集來自不同選區的很多人,發起一項極有成效的運動。他總是孜孜不倦,堅守原則。我永遠對他心懷感激。

(蘇偉信譯)


Management thought leaders share their ideas on values in business. Featuring: Arturo Condo, David Rock, Buie Seawell, Erin Lehman, Christopher Adkins, Maj. Gen. Frederick B. Hodges, Susan Clancy, and Jonathan Gosling.

Tell me about a leader who has the right values and teaches them to others.

1. Arturo Condo, Professor, INCAE Business School

Well, I think they’re the perfect leaders. But I think a leader that I admire and I particularly think is a good role model because he’s from a different culture than mine is Lee Kuan Yew, the long time prime minister of Singapore. And the two values that I admire the most in him are a big strong sense of pragmatism. So he was a political leader who did not put any pre-judged or pre-established idea of how to achieve the ends he was pursuing for his people before that goal itself.

So basically he was able—and that’s a second value—is humility, to some extent, intellectual humility. So the ability to change course if you need to many times especially when you’re successful. That’s hard. And the third, which is what you ask in terms of the teaching values, he created in Singapore several generations of political leaders who are mindful, pragmatic, honest and that’s something that is really, really hard to do. And it’s rare to see.

2. David Rock, Founder, NeuroLeadership Institute

One of my favorite leaders is actually Sara Matthew who is the CEO of Dun & Bradstreet. And she has an incredible intellect but also she’s got a really deep willingness to expose herself and to learn as a leader. And maybe it was her upbringing, maybe it was being kind of co-CEO for awhile and watching how to do it, I don’t know. But she really has the ability to learn and to take feedback and to focus on what’s really important in leadership.

3. Buie Seawell, Professor, Daniels School of Business, University of Denver

I think about my late father-in-law, Charles Beaird, when you asked the question of a leader who has the right values. He built Poulan Chainsaws. He was a tremendously successful businessman. But he also got a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University and taught ethics at St. Mary’s College at Shreveport, Louisiana. And he brought the ethics that he taught to the business that he created. He became a very wealthy person.

But the depth of his richness was creating a company that people loved to work at, that they felt treated them fair, that gave them a place where their lives—not just Charles Beaird’s life—their lives could be fulfilled. He used to tell me—because we both taught business ethics—that there was only one subject for business ethics and that was distributive justice. And he lived his life trying to create wealth and fairly distribute it. He was Republican. I’m a Democrat. But we loved each other.

4. Erin Lehman, Senior Researcher, Center for Public Leadership, Harvard University

When I think of a leader who I admire, who I believe has the right values that would be somebody like President Clinton, President Obama because I love the fact that they embrace people. They’re not shy to take other points of view. They bring it all in and somehow motivate people to be engaged, to be thoughtful. And that’s what I’m looking for in leaders, somebody who can get others to be inspired and to get engaged with whatever it is that they’re doing, be it politics, business, whatever. So a leader who is open minded and knows how to deal well with people.

5.Christopher Adkins, Director, Undergraduate Program, Mason School of Business, The College of William and Mary

When I think about a leader who has the right values, a new leader who I’ve just met over the last year and a half came to mind. His name is Greg Van Kirk. He’s launched something called Community Enterprise Solutions around something called the micro consignment model. So think micro-finance. You give people small loans. But often when you do that, you’re giving loans to people who may not know how to spend that money, may not have the business training to know how to invest it. And you’re assuming they have a product or good that they can actually go out to buy and resell.

Micro consignment actually is a much more collaborative and sharing model where you actually consign the goods. So you’re giving them the goods to sell. What’s brilliant about what Greg does is not just this model, but the way that he engages with the people throughout the model. It’s all about changing the lives of women entrepreneurs in Guatemala, Ecuador, and El Salvador. But not thinking he can do it by himself, realizing that he needs a rich team of people, from the people that support him financially, to the college students that actually bring their business skills into the field.

And so when I think about Greg’s leadership skills, he has this incredible ability to do what I call empathic zooming in and zooming out. And so by empathic zooming in, I mean really getting close to whoever it is he’s working with. So if he’s working with college students, he spends time with them. If he’s in the villages, he spends time with them. And that spending time with them helps them not just understand or build relationships but it actually helps him think about what products we should sell in the field or what products we need to best help the students figure out how to sell better, for example, or how they train the women entrepreneurs.

And so the zooming in helps build the relationships gets close understanding. But social entrepreneurship, or for any leader, it’s not just about individual change but it’s about large scale change. And so he’s able to zoom out and really see what are the systems, say in a place like Guatemala, that are at the cause of the current situation is and what people can have a better livelihood. So ultimately what Greg does is really begins with this empathy that lets him get close to the people, build trust. And then he zooms back out and then tries to see what are the scalable solutions. And he comes up with objective goals, measures them. And I think that’s what makes him a great leader.

6. Maj. Gen. Frederick B. Hodges, U.S. Army

Well, I had a terrific experience under General David Petraeus for two years when he was the division commander of 101st Airborne Division at the beginning of the war in Iraq. I was one of his brigade commanders. And he set an example of personal courage by going all over the battlefield wherever we were. And we were scattered all over northern Iraq. He personally went out to see the environment in which the soldiers were living and operating. He also set a personal example of innovation, which made it clear what he expected of all of us.

Take risks, use your initiatives, and do things differently in order to connect with Iraqi population. And help get Iraqi leadership back in place, civil leadership, to understand the tribal nature of the Sunni part of northern Iraq for example. So that aspect of how we were supposed to operate, which the effectiveness of that was reflected in the success that the 101st Airborne Division had in northern Iraq.

And, again, it was a personal example of General Petraeus of courage, innovation. And then also he’s such a great communicator. He could articulate to us at every level that’s what he expected of us. And he was relentless as well. And lots of leaders are relentless and put high demands on you. But he matched his relentlessness with personal example, doing what he expected us to do, and then finding resources. I’ve never seen anybody that could come up with resources to help you accomplish what it was you were trying to do the way that he did.

7. Susan Clancy, Associate Professor, INCAE Business School

I think a lot about what leaders I admire, what leaders had the kind of values that I want to teach my students, and actually the first to come to mind is John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the President of the United States between 1961 and 1963. And actually he was the founder, or one of the founders, of the business school that I currently teach at. And he may not have been a perfect man in terms of having some flawed personal values of his own. However, in terms of his orientation towards making society a better place, I think he was fixed in the right direction.

And I think it’s summed up in the quotes that he’s famous for. For example, when he said, “ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” And in addition, he has a wonderful quote that we give all of our business school students in which he says, “a great society is one in which men and women of business think greatly about their responsibilities and the consequences of their actions.” And for that reason, I admire him very much.

8. Jonathan Gosling, Professor, University of Exeter Business School

Well, in thinking about that question, I came in my thoughts to the person who I think had the biggest impact on me and my work, a man called the Reverend Paul Regan who founded and ran an organization called the Newham Renewal Project in an inner city area of East London. Always in response to the new needs as they arose. He started the project when a large number of Asian people were evicted from Uganda by Idi Amin.

And he opened the doors of his church and his home and persuaded a number of other people across many different faiths and religions to do similar things and made a possible landing place for these people. And he didn’t rest there. They quickly moved on when the challenges changed, new waves of immigration from Sri Lanka, for example. They responded in different ways to meet those needs. And in a very forward looking and complex response, he developed the organization that first employed me called the Newham Conflict and Change Project, which sought to address areas of conflict, particularly neighborhood conflict and racial conflict within that area.

And not to try to simply resolve it and make it go away, but to engage the people involved there in trying to understand the more complex forces that were in a sense of creating conflict amongst them when maybe the fight was better directed elsewhere, at social injustice. Paul Regan is now in his 70’s. He retired a year or two ago. And most recently he’s championed what’s been a hugely successful national campaign in the UK called the Living Wage campaign.

And this has really spoken up for low paid workers and given them a voice, particularly in the banks in the city of London, who had outsourced their cleaning contracts to companies which in turn hired many illegal immigrants, employed them at very low wages with very little protection. And Paul managed to pull together a large number of people across a range of different constituencies to mount a fantastically effective campaign. He’s absolutely tireless and deeply principled. And a man I shall always be grateful to.



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