建立自信,釋放創意

Build Confidence to Unleash Creativity
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你是否有很棒的構想,卻沒有勇氣實行?如果是這樣,這些構想就很少有希望成真。若要獲得實行構想的信心,你可以與顧客分享原型,然後運用他們的回饋意見來改善這些概念。

安吉莉亞.赫林(Angelia Herrin):嗨,我是安吉莉亞.赫林,我今天在帕羅奧圖訪問IDEO設計公司的湯姆.凱利和大衛.凱利。他們合寫了新書《創意自信》。感謝你們今天撥冗前來。這真的是很棒的書,很適合思考這類念頭的人:「為什麼我想不出新的好點子,為什麼我不能更有創意?」但你們真正關注的不是創意或創新。你們關注的是信心。為什麼?

大衛.凱利(David Kelley):是的,我認為每個人都把世界上的人劃分成有創意的人,以及在童年時代就選擇放棄創意的人,但事實並非如此。我們認為每個人都極有創意,這是我們的經驗,在IDEO和史丹佛福大學設計學院的經驗,都是如此。我們發現,如果人們對自己的創意能力有信心,最終會變得成效更高,而且會在生活中做其他事情,讓自我感覺更好。我們真的很高興看到人們建立這種信心。我們帶領他們達成一系列小小的成功,最後他們會覺得:「天啊,我是有創意的人。」

安吉莉亞.赫林:湯姆,你其實認為每個人都有創意,而研發部門並不完全擁有創新?

湯姆.凱利(Tom Kelley):沒錯。每個人都有創意,只是在某些人身上埋得比其他人更深。所以當大衛剛開始在史丹佛設計學院授課時,我們以為是要傳授創意,但其實,創意一直都在。關鍵更在於信心。因此,自認沒有創意的人,你若給他們一些工具,給他們一些指導,就能協助他們達成一系列的小小成功,然後他們就會充滿信心,發揮一直存在自身的創意。

安吉莉亞.赫林:這本書很好地說明了,不要坐等靈光乍現的瞬間,也很有說服力地主張協作和你所謂的「行動傾向」。能說明一下你們指的是什麼嗎?

大衛.凱利:當然。我們認為,為專案進行規畫、制定策略、預作準備,有很大的價值,但我們認為,所謂的「行動傾向」是更好的方法,這是指走出去,進入世界。處理棘手的部分,到顧客所在之處,努力嘗試快速打造你最佳構想的原型。這似乎是愚蠢的,剛開始就打造原型,但我們發現,這樣可以獲得更多資訊,遠多於你坐在辦公室規畫所得到的資訊。

採取行動走出去,勇敢地去與顧客交流,向他們展示你的最佳構想,讓他們告訴你實際情況,這真的是很混亂的做法,因為他們會告訴你哪裡出錯。他們立刻就會說:「我不喜歡這樣。」你不應該沮喪地回家,而應說:「好的,這些都是資訊。我要打造另一個原型,會根據這些資訊來打造。」很快地,你一旦完成一系列原型,至少就能直覺地掌握方向。現在,你可以進行規畫和擬定策略,因為它根據的是從現場獲得的一些實際資訊。我們一再看到,人們在這個規畫階段取得成功。對吧?

湯姆.凱利:沒錯。這種行動傾向,被納入我們視為創意信心的根本當中。因此,我們定義創意信心就是一種自然的能力,有能力想出突破性構想,並結合實行那些構想的勇氣。因為我們知道很多人都是夢想家,總是能想出點子,卻就此打住,回去工作或回去看電視之類的。但我們認為,讓構想加上行動,是讓人充滿創意信心的先決條件。

安吉莉亞.赫林:你們兩人都對這個主題充滿熱情,但為什麼你們現在決定專注於創意信心?為什麼你們現在要寫這本書?畢竟你已寫過關於創新和設計思維的文章。

湯姆.凱利:當然。其實我們一直在做這件事,已經三十年了,一直致力於創新。當你開始退後一步看看自己的職涯曲線,開始思考自己未來要留下些什麼時,創新確實很有趣,但可惜成功率不是100%。所以我們始思考如何創造新的創新者,啟發周遭的人成為自己的創新者。我們幾乎可以肯定,如果你創造了新的創新者,他們會在職涯中成功。這就是大衛在設計學院所教的內容。我們與客戶的合作,不只是專案工作,還包括客戶組織內部文化方面的工作,都是要讓其他人追求自己的創意信心。

大衛.凱利:這也有個人的原因。2007年我得了喉癌,約有40%的存活率。湯姆每天都陪著我。因此我們決定,如果我活了下來,我們就一起做點什麼。我做到了,我活了下來。如果我活下來,我們就一起做點什麼。我們決定,寫這本書是我們要一起做的事。這很有收穫,我們一起經營公司,因此通常不會一起去同一個地方。為此我們一起去旅行,在那次旅行中,我們決定寫這本書。所以這也有個人因素。

安吉莉亞.赫林:非常感謝兩位,這真的是很棒的訪談。

湯姆.凱利:不客氣,我們很樂意來參加。非常謝謝。

(劉純佑譯)


Angelia Herrin: Hi, I'm Angelia Herrin, and I'm here today in Palo Alto with Tom and David Kelley of IDEO. They're the authors of the new book “Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All.” Thanks for joining me here today. This is a really great book for those of us who ponder, “Why can't I think of new great ideas, and why can't I be more creative?” But you don't really focus on the word “creative” or “innovation.” You're focused on confidence. Why?

David Kelley: Yeah, I think that everybody has divided the world into, they're a creative person, they opted out of being creative when they were a kid, but it's just not true. We think everybody's wildly creative, and it's been our experience that that's been true at IDEO and the d.school at Stanford. So, we find it if they have this confidence in their creative ability that they end up being more effective, and they do other things in their lives that allow them to feel better about themselves. And so we've really been excited to see this confidence build in people. We take them to a series of small successes and they end up thinking as though, ”Oh my god, I'm a creative person.”

Angelia Herrin: So, Tom, you actually believe that everybody's creative and that the R&D department doesn't have total ownership of innovation?

Tom Kelley: Sure, absolutely. Everybody's creative. The issue is, it's buried deeper in some than others. And so when David started the d.school at Stanford, at first, we thought we had to teach creativity to people, but in fact, the creativity's there. It's really more about the confidence. And so, someone who doesn't self-identify as creative, if you give them a few tools, if you give them a little coaching, you help them through those series of small successes, then they emerge to confidence -- and they've got the creativity there all the time.

Angelia Herrin: The book makes a strong case for not sitting around waiting for a lightning bolt of inspiration to hit you. It makes a strong case for collaboration and something that you call a “bias for action.” Can you tell us what you mean by that?

David Kelley: Sure. We think that planning and strategizing and preparing to do a project has a lot of value, but we think that what we call a “bias towards action” is a better approach -- which is, get out there into the world. Get into the messy part of being where your customers are and just really trying to build a quick prototype of what your best idea is. It seems foolish to start building the prototype when you have barely started, but we found that you get much more information that way than you do planning in your office.

That action step of going out and having the guts to go and mingle with your customers, and show them your best ideas, and have them tell you what's what --It's really messy, because they tell you what's wrong. Right away, they start saying, “ I don't like that.” Instead of getting depressed and going home, you say, “OK. That's information. I'm going to build another prototype based on that.” And pretty soon, once you've gone through a series of prototypes, you pretty much have at least a gut feel for what direction. Now you can do the planning and strategizing because it's based on some real information that you got from the field. And we see that over and over again that that succeeds over this planning stage. Right?

Tom Kelley: Right. And this bias towards action is built into the essence of what we think of as creative confidence. And so we define creative confidence as the ability -- the natural ability -- to come up with breakthrough ideas, combined with the courage to act on them. Because we know lots of people who are dreamers and come up with ideas all the time, and they just stop and they go back to work or they go back to watching TV, or whatever it is. But it's the ideas plus the action that we think makes creative confidence in first place.

Angelia Herrin: So you both have so much passion for this topic, but why did you decide to focus on creative confidence now? Why did you write this book now? You've written about innovation, you've written about design thinking.

Tom Kelley: Sure. Well, really, we've been doing this for like, 30 years, working on innovation. And as you start to step back and look at the arc of your career, and you start to think about your future legacy and things like that, innovations are really fun, but it's not a 100% success rate, innovation, unfortunately. And so you start to think about creating new innovators, about inspiring people around you to be innovators of their own. And you can pretty much bet that if you create a new innovator, that they will have successes in their career. And so that's what David's teaching at the d.school. And our work with clients -- not just the project work, but the work on culture inside of client organization -- is about getting others to pursue their creative confidence.

David Kelley: There's also a personal reason. In 2007, I got throat cancer, and had about a 40% chance of living. And Tom was there every day for me. And so we decided we would do something, if I survived. Which I did -- I 'm still here. If I survived, we'd do something together. And we decided that writing this book was something we would do together. And so it's been rewarding in that way, because running the company together, we know we wouldn't go to the same place, normally. And so we took a trip together, and on that trip we decided to write this book. And so we have that personal reason as well.

Angelia Herrin: David, Tom, thanks so much. This has been a great interview.

Tom Kelley: Sure – our pleasure. Thanks a lot.



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