我們何時會達到性別平等?

When Will We Reach Gender Equality?
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十年?五十年?商學院學生各自做出了最好的猜測,慈善家、樞紐創投公司創辦人梅琳達.蓋茲(Melinda Gates)解釋為何真正的數字是幾百年之後。

在今日的美國,女性約占勞動力的一半。但我們的收入仍然不如男性,職位不如男性高,在決策中也沒有平等的發言權。我們何時才能看到性別平等?我們詢問波士頓附近商學院學生的想法。

「我覺得,要真正實現性別平等可能需要三十到五十年。」

「我認為絕對還需要十年。」

「我真希望能在未來五到十年內實現,在2025年、2030年實現。」

「我認為我們還需要五十多年。」

「我認為平等永遠不會發生。」

按照美國的發展速度,研究顯示,想要看到性別平等,恐怕要再等208年。你對此有何反應?

「什麼?」

「哦,哇。哦,哇。」

「哇。好吧,兩百年,呃...」

「兩百年?我根本活不到那時候。」

梅琳達.蓋茲(Melinda Gates):「當我發現距離性別平等還有208年,我簡直不敢相信,因為我腦中總認為,我以為也許還需要六十年。」

梅琳達.蓋茲有一個計畫,讓我們在有生之年實現性別平等。「我開始對自己說,天哪,我們現在必須為此做點什麼。」

究竟是什麼拖慢我們的腳步?

梅琳達.蓋茲:「在美國,職業婦女人數比以往更多,但我們的代表人數不平等。我們在真正關鍵的產業中沒有足夠代表,例如公職、學術界、科技、投資、創業、媒體。這些產業在美國有特別大的影響力。如果女性在這些領域沒有得到平等的代表,我們就無法參與制定政策、做出融資決定、決定未來的工作場所。」

不平等並非很大的抽象概念,而是女性面臨的一個非常真實的挑戰,在學校和整個職涯中都會面臨。

梅琳達.蓋茲:「我上大學時感到很驚訝,尤其是在我的電腦科學班上,很少有女同學讀電腦科學。我大學畢業後立刻進入商學院,再次驚訝地發現,很多女性在商學院畢業後,沒有如同男性般去從事財務工作。那是我生平第一次真正開始關注男女的差異,甚至在大學和商學院階段就是如此。」

美國東北大學學生:「我大二第一週上課時,我的第二堂課是高級財務3301。一開始教室內只有我,然後進來了幾個男生,沒有任何異常。然後來了更多的男生和更多的男生。之後教授出現,開始上課。我是教室內唯一的女生。也許我看起來不自在,是因為我是教室裡唯一的女生,也或許是因為我不喜歡教授冷不防對我提問。但他說,凱特真的很想知道自己怎麼會選了這門課。教室裡的每個男生,包括教授,全都笑了,這讓我感到很沮喪,很不自在。」

美國波士頓大學學生:「我在請產假之前,負責管理一個團隊。我不在的時候他們做得很好。這並沒有反映他們之前接受了很棒的訓練和指導,因而造就他們的成功,這反而被認為是他們不再需要我了。」

我們顯然遇到了問題。我們該怎麼辦?

美琳達說,以下是企業領導人現在必須做的事:「他們應檢視自己的工作場所,然後說,這適合家庭和女性嗎?我們知道,大多數女性都有家庭。那麼我們是否有真正的有薪家庭病假政策?我們是否確保男性和女性都有請這種假?我們有適合女性的人際網絡嗎?我們是否有為女性創造擔任這些職位的途徑?我們是否確定,一旦她們擔任這個職位,就能在指導和贊助方面得到支持,讓她們擔任真正關鍵的職務?」

在實務上,做法可能是主管查看資料,看看女性在公司中的代表性如何;在重要產業如科技或政府部門,提供更多有薪實習;確保女性得到有挑戰性、有價值的任務,而不只是得到忙碌而不重要的工作。

梅琳達.蓋茲:「阻礙女性前進的障礙是什麼?我們的制度和職場在哪些地方存在偏見?我們該如何拆除那些偏見,並改變現狀,好讓女性擁有與男性相同的機會?」

梅琳達.蓋茲的策略目標是:加速進步的速度,並且在2030年以前達成可衡量的成果。

(劉純佑譯)


In the US today, women make up about half the workforce. But we still aren't earning as much as men, rising as high, or having an equal voice in decision-making. When are we going to see gender equality? We asked business students around Boston what they thought. I feel like to actually get to real gender parity will probably take 30 to 50 years. I think it will definitely take another 10 years. I really hope it will be in the next five to 10 years. In 2025. 2030. I think that we are 50-plus years out.

I don't think equality will ever happen. Well, at the rate we're moving in the US, research says we're not going to see gender equality for another 208 years. What? How do you react to that? Oh, wow. Oh, wow. Wow. OK, 200 years, uh--200 years? I won't even be alive. When I found out it was 208 years away for gender equality, I quite simply couldn't believe it because I think somewhere in my mind I thought we were maybe 60 years away.

This is Melinda Gates. She's got a plan to get us to gender equality in our lifetime. I started to say to myself, my gosh, we have to do something about this now. So what's slowing us down? More women are working than ever in the United States, but we aren't represented equally. And we're not represented in the really key sectors, such as public office, academia, tech, investing, entrepreneurship, media. Those particular industries are having an outsized impact in the United States.

And so if women don't have equal representation there, we don't have seats at the table always on setting policies, making funding decisions, deciding what the workplace of the future should be. Inequality isn't some big abstract concept. It's a very real challenge women face in school and throughout their careers. When I entered college, I was actually quite surprised, particularly in my computer science classes, how few women were studying computer science.

And then when I entered business school right after undergraduate, again, I was kind of surprised how many of the women weren't going after the finance jobs that men were going after coming out of business school. Then it, for the first time, really started to be on my mind about the difference between men and women, even in the college and business school level.

I had my first week of classes of my sophomore year of college. My second class the day was my higher level finance 3301 class. And at first, it was me and then a few guys, not anything abnormal. And then there were more guys and more guys. And then the professor showed up, and class started. And I was the only girl in the room. Maybe I looked uncomfortable because I was the only girl in the room, or maybe it was because I don't like professors that cold call on you. But he said, Kate's really wondering what she got herself into being in this class. And every single guy in the classroom, including the professor, laughed, which made me feel so discouraged, so uncomfortable.

I managed a team before I went on maternity leave. And they did awesome while I was out. And instead of that being a reflection of how well they had been trained and mentored to enable their success, it was seen as: I was no longer needed.

Clearly, we've got a problem. So what do we do about it? Here's what Melinda says business leaders need to do now. They need to look at their workplace and say, is this working for families and for women? We know most women have families. And so do we have a true paid family medical leave policy? And are we making sure that women and men are taking it? Do we have the right networks for women? Are we creating pathways into these jobs for women? Are we making sure that, once they're here, they're supported both in terms of mentorship but also sponsorship into really key roles?

In practice, this could be managers looking at the data to see how well women are represented in their companies, offering more paid internships in key sectors like tech or government, making sure women are getting the challenging, worthwhile assignments, not just the busywork. What are the barriers that hold women back? Where do we have bias in our systems and in our workplace? And how do we tear that down and change things so women have the same opportunities as men?

Wait, can I start over? Am I too serious? Should I smile a little more? Do you want me to stand like this? Like this? I hate talking about gender parity. Nobody should have to talk about gender parity. It should just be a natural thing that happens.



本篇文章主題性別