數位連結如何模糊了產業界線

How Digital Connectivity Blurs Industry Lines
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影片載入中...
馬可.顏西提和卡林.拉哈尼合著的文章〈無處不數位〉(Digital Ubiquity: How Connections, Sensors, and Data are Revolutionising Business.),說明新公司與根基穩固的公司如何打破產業界線,以獲取價值。

柯比:嗨,我是《哈佛商業評論》的茱莉亞.柯比。今天的影片邀請了拉哈尼和顏西提這兩位哈佛商學院教授。他們為《哈佛商業評論》合寫了一篇文章 〈無處不數位:連線+感應器+資料掀起企業革命〉 。謝謝兩位撥冗前來。

拉哈尼:謝謝。

顏西提:謝謝

柯比:你們的文章提到各種商業機會,但這些機會都是回應商業環境裡的一個重大變化,也就是你們所謂的「無處不數位」。請描述一下,這個變化速度有多快 或者有多劇烈。

顏西提:好的。數位轉型已經進行很久,迄今已有數十年。我們也看到《哈佛商業評論》有很多這類文章,很多期都在描述數位科技對所有人的衝擊。但我認為,近年來發生的情況很吸引人,因為數位裝置、數位感測器、數位偵測器的部署速度大增。

例如,隨著物聯網興起,許多裝置和偵測器裝在各種產品和產品零件裡,而這些產品和零件過去是屬於舊類比時代。因此,我們現在建立的網路已經達到臨界規模,這是前所未見的。萬物相連,因此可從中產生大量商業模式和機會,數量之多前所未見。而且速度持續加快,因此讓人覺得這個變化才剛發生。

柯比:你說企業因為這個變化而有了革命性改變,你的主要是指企業提供的產品和服務,還是指企業內部的運作和管理方式。

拉哈尼:其實這兩者我們都有看到。例如,一旦你開始把類比通訊數位化,像是調整家用溫控器,突然間,就出現了一系列新商機,例如Google收購Nest,以便為顧客提供節約能源的新服務。

但他們會接收所有回傳的數據,然後用這些數據來提供建議給電力公司。這改變了Google現在使用這種新裝置的商業模式。同時,企業也可以重新思考要採用什麼組織結構,以便提供這些服務。

顏西提:這種新的連結,確實為企業創造了新的選擇。突然間,你連結到之前你完全陌生的市場,就像Google原本是資訊科技公司,後來連結到溫控器業務,這很有趣,因為它為溫控器創造了各種新機會,可用新的方式賺錢,連結到不同的產業。

突然間,家庭用電模式的資料,可透過資訊科技公司,回傳給電力公司,讓電力公司優化各個發電廠的電力配置。原本截然不同的產業,現在用新方式合作提供產品和服務。

同時,如果你真的想這樣做(我們在那篇文章中有很多相關例子),你就必須重組公司的營運方式,因為你必須強調那些新連結,必須用不同方式銷售,以不同的方式開發產品。它確實改變了企業的運作方式,而這讓雙方都感到興奮。

柯比:我們來談另一個革命性價值創造的例子,這個情況發生在現在,而在無處不數位的時代之前,是不可能出現的。

拉哈尼:好的。讓我舉一個很日常的例子,我最喜歡的例子之一,就是達美樂披薩。達美樂目前對資訊科技的投資,明顯多於對其他部門的投資。它已經完全用數位化和行動化方式,處理顧客訂餐流程。

他們發現,這些新科技促成同店銷售額年成長率約達14%,也完全改變他們現在對產品開發的看法。因為突然間,透過顧客用來訂購披薩的線上裝置,達美樂可以推出新產品。其實,昨晚我才點了一份達美樂披薩,用來提醒自己這實在太厲害了。

但這種體驗如此驚人,是因為你是在網路上進行,它會記住你上次訂的披薩,嘗試向你追加銷售各種產品。然後就像聯邦快遞一樣,它會給你一個披薩追蹤器,它知道披薩目前處於那一個製作階段,以及何時會送到。然後,外送員打我的手機,說他就在我家門外。請出來拿披薩。這全都是數位化進行。

達美樂現在擁有很多資訊,關於我、我的位置、我買的商品、向我銷售的商品、我買或不買哪些追加銷售產品等資訊。這徹底改變了他們的業務。他們現在是科技公司,只是剛好在送披薩。這對於企業能做什麼,是很具革命性的,只要企業知道有這些科技可使用,並且可用新方式來使用。

柯比:你是否認為,基於這點,達美樂其實採用了不同的商業模式?

顏西提:是的。他們可以創造價值,可以用不同的方式獲取價值。關於這點的一個有趣現象是,它發生在很多產業,都是傳統所謂科技領域之外的產業。

人們創造價值的方式,是把不同產業連結起來,把披薩加上來自披薩遞送流程的一些元素,或遞送民眾可以選擇的其他東西。你把這些東西連結到其他環境,而它們在過去並未連結在一起,例如溫控器、電力公司和軟體公司。

他們也可以攜手,為人們創造過去不存在的服務和產品。另一個例子也許不那麼平常,那就是無人駕駛汽車。借助汽車科技,未來我們可以讓汽車成為無人駕駛。汽車本身,會變得愈來愈像是螢幕嵌入了行動客廳,這個客廳載著你到處跑。

而這個螢幕可用來播放廣告,展示各種不同的商機,進而把汽車業連結到任何想打廣告的其他本土企業。從星巴克到達美樂的任何企業,或任何想在上班途中進來買杯咖啡的人,或是想要更有效率地到達目的地的人。它確實為傳統產業帶來很有趣的改變。

柯比:所以,在這個無處不數位的新時代,大公司和小公司都有機會。非常感謝兩位今天來分享你們的想法。

(劉純佑譯)


Julia Kirby: Hi, I’m Julia Kirby with HBR. Here in the studio today, we have Karim Lakhani and Marco Iansiti. They're both with Harvard Business School, and their article in the November issue of HBR is “Digital Ubiquity: How Connections, Sensors, and Data are Revolutionising Business.” Gentleman, thanks for joining us.

Karim Lakhani: Thank you.

Marco Insiti: Thank you.

Julia Kirby: Your article gets into a whole range of opportunities for business. But they're all in response to a major change that’s happened in the business environment. It's what you called “digital ubiquity.” Maybe you can paint a picture for us of how rapid it or dramatic a change that has been.

Marco Iansiti: Well, sure. Digital transformation has been going on for a long time, so we have seen decades of this. We’ve seen a lot of this even in HBR, many issues that have described how digital technology has had impact on all of us. But what’s happening, I think, in recent years is really fascinating because the speed of deployment of digital devices, and digital sensors, and digital detectors has just exploded.

And for example, with the internet of things, we have devices and detectors on all sorts of products and components of products that previously were left in the old analog days. And so now, the network that we have has been built out to a critical mass that has never been seen before. And everything is connected to everything else. And so, the number of business models and opportunities that can be drawn from this is virtually unprecedented. And the speed is accelerating, so it feels like the change is just happening now.

Julia Kirby: So when you say, business is being revolutionized by this, are you talking about more of the offerings that businesses make or more about the internal workings of businesses, and how they’re managed.

Karim Lakhani: We’re seeing both actually. So for example, once you start to digitize analog transactions, like adjusting your home thermostat, then all of a sudden, a whole new set of opportunities come up for businesses, like a Google who had acquired Nest in terms of being able to offer new services for the customers in terms of energy reduction.

But then, they get all this data back which they can then use to advise energy companies as well. So that changes the business models at Google is now playing in with this new device. At the same time, firms can rethink how to organize themselves as well when it comes to offering these services.

Marco Iansiti: This new connectivity just really creates new options for businesses. All of a sudden, you're connected to markets that were, before, completely foreign to yourself, like Google, an information technology company, being connected to a thermostat business which is so interesting because it creates all sorts of new opportunities for the thermostats to be monetized in new ways, to be connected to different industries.

All of a sudden, the data in the home about patterns of usage can be transmitted back through information technology companies to energy companies, so they can optimize how they allocate energy in their power plants. So industries that are previously completely disparate come together in offering products and services in new ways.

At the same time, if you really want to do this, and we have a lot of this in the article, is you really have to restructure the way you run the firm because you have to emphasize the new connections, you have to sell in different ways, you have to develop products in different ways. It really changes the way the business is run, and it's kind of exciting on both sides.

Julia Kirby: So let's talk about maybe another example of a revolutionary value creation that's happened now that just wouldn't have been possible before the age of ubiquity.

Karim Lakhani: Sure. So let me give you a very mundane example, one of my favorite examples which is Domino's Pizza. So apparently Domino's Pizza now invests more in IT than any other department. They've gone complete digital and mobile in terms of the customer ordering process.

And what they're finding is that these new technologies are increasing same store sales by about 14% per year and are completely changing how they think about product development themselves now, too. Because now, all of a sudden, through the online devices that people use to order pizza, they can come up with new offerings. In fact, last night I ordered a Domino's Pizza just to remind myself about how crazy it was.

But there is an amazing experience because you're online, it remembers your last pizza, it then asks you, it tries to upsell you a whole range of things. And then, like FedEx, it gives you a pizza tracker, so it knows where in the process that pizza is and when it's going to show up. And then, the driver calls me on my mobile saying, I'm here outside your door. Please come up and pick up the pizza. All that happened digitally.

And Domino's now has all this information about me, my location, what am I buying, and what am I selling to, what I'm upselling with or not. And that has completely changed their business. So they're now a technology company that happens to deliver pizza. So it's quite revolutionary in terms of what firms can now do once they embrace the fact that these technologies are available and can be used in new ways.

Julia Kirby: So would you say that Domino's now has an actually different business model because of this?

Marco Iansiti: Yeah. They can create value, and they can capture value in different ways. And one of the interesting things about this is that it's happening in all kinds of sectors that are outside of what's traditionally known as technology sectors.

People are creating value by connecting the different industries to each other by having pizza and having added components that can come out of the pizza delivery process or delivering other things that people can choose. You connect to these things to other environments that before weren't really connected, like thermostats and energy companies and software companies.

Also, working together to create services and products for people that before could not exist. Another example of this, perhaps not quite as mundane, is the driverless car. So now, with technology in cars, we can make cars themselves driverless in the future. And the car itself is becoming more and more of a basically a screen that's embedded in this living room that drives you around.

Then, that screen can be used for displaying advertising, for displaying all kinds of different commercial opportunities, thereby linking the automotive industry to any kind of other local business that might want to advertise. And anything ranging from Starbucks to, again, Domino's or anybody else that would like to come in and purchase a cup of coffee on their way to work or find a more efficient way to get there. It's really changing some really interesting traditional sectors.

Julia Kirby: So opportunities to be had for both large and small firms in this new age of ubiquity. Gentlemen, thank you so much for being here and sharing your thoughts today.



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