馬可．顏西提和卡林．拉哈尼合著的文章〈無處不數位〉（Digital Ubiquity: How Connections, Sensors, and Data are Revolutionising Business.），說明新公司與根基穩固的公司如何打破產業界線，以獲取價值。
柯比：嗨，我是《哈佛商業評論》的茱莉亞．柯比。今天的影片邀請了拉哈尼和顏西提這兩位哈佛商學院教授。他們為《哈佛商業評論》合寫了一篇文章 〈無處不數位：連線+感應器+資料掀起企業革命〉 。謝謝兩位撥冗前來。
Julia Kirby: Hi, I’m Julia Kirby with HBR. Here in the studio today, we have Karim Lakhani and Marco Iansiti. They're both with Harvard Business School, and their article in the November issue of HBR is “Digital Ubiquity: How Connections, Sensors, and Data are Revolutionising Business.” Gentleman, thanks for joining us.
Karim Lakhani: Thank you.
Marco Insiti: Thank you.
Julia Kirby: Your article gets into a whole range of opportunities for business. But they're all in response to a major change that’s happened in the business environment. It's what you called “digital ubiquity.” Maybe you can paint a picture for us of how rapid it or dramatic a change that has been.
Marco Iansiti: Well, sure. Digital transformation has been going on for a long time, so we have seen decades of this. We’ve seen a lot of this even in HBR, many issues that have described how digital technology has had impact on all of us. But what’s happening, I think, in recent years is really fascinating because the speed of deployment of digital devices, and digital sensors, and digital detectors has just exploded.
And for example, with the internet of things, we have devices and detectors on all sorts of products and components of products that previously were left in the old analog days. And so now, the network that we have has been built out to a critical mass that has never been seen before. And everything is connected to everything else. And so, the number of business models and opportunities that can be drawn from this is virtually unprecedented. And the speed is accelerating, so it feels like the change is just happening now.
Julia Kirby: So when you say, business is being revolutionized by this, are you talking about more of the offerings that businesses make or more about the internal workings of businesses, and how they’re managed.
Karim Lakhani: We’re seeing both actually. So for example, once you start to digitize analog transactions, like adjusting your home thermostat, then all of a sudden, a whole new set of opportunities come up for businesses, like a Google who had acquired Nest in terms of being able to offer new services for the customers in terms of energy reduction.
But then, they get all this data back which they can then use to advise energy companies as well. So that changes the business models at Google is now playing in with this new device. At the same time, firms can rethink how to organize themselves as well when it comes to offering these services.
Marco Iansiti: This new connectivity just really creates new options for businesses. All of a sudden, you're connected to markets that were, before, completely foreign to yourself, like Google, an information technology company, being connected to a thermostat business which is so interesting because it creates all sorts of new opportunities for the thermostats to be monetized in new ways, to be connected to different industries.
All of a sudden, the data in the home about patterns of usage can be transmitted back through information technology companies to energy companies, so they can optimize how they allocate energy in their power plants. So industries that are previously completely disparate come together in offering products and services in new ways.
At the same time, if you really want to do this, and we have a lot of this in the article, is you really have to restructure the way you run the firm because you have to emphasize the new connections, you have to sell in different ways, you have to develop products in different ways. It really changes the way the business is run, and it's kind of exciting on both sides.
Julia Kirby: So let's talk about maybe another example of a revolutionary value creation that's happened now that just wouldn't have been possible before the age of ubiquity.
Karim Lakhani: Sure. So let me give you a very mundane example, one of my favorite examples which is Domino's Pizza. So apparently Domino's Pizza now invests more in IT than any other department. They've gone complete digital and mobile in terms of the customer ordering process.
And what they're finding is that these new technologies are increasing same store sales by about 14% per year and are completely changing how they think about product development themselves now, too. Because now, all of a sudden, through the online devices that people use to order pizza, they can come up with new offerings. In fact, last night I ordered a Domino's Pizza just to remind myself about how crazy it was.
But there is an amazing experience because you're online, it remembers your last pizza, it then asks you, it tries to upsell you a whole range of things. And then, like FedEx, it gives you a pizza tracker, so it knows where in the process that pizza is and when it's going to show up. And then, the driver calls me on my mobile saying, I'm here outside your door. Please come up and pick up the pizza. All that happened digitally.
And Domino's now has all this information about me, my location, what am I buying, and what am I selling to, what I'm upselling with or not. And that has completely changed their business. So they're now a technology company that happens to deliver pizza. So it's quite revolutionary in terms of what firms can now do once they embrace the fact that these technologies are available and can be used in new ways.
Julia Kirby: So would you say that Domino's now has an actually different business model because of this?
Marco Iansiti: Yeah. They can create value, and they can capture value in different ways. And one of the interesting things about this is that it's happening in all kinds of sectors that are outside of what's traditionally known as technology sectors.
People are creating value by connecting the different industries to each other by having pizza and having added components that can come out of the pizza delivery process or delivering other things that people can choose. You connect to these things to other environments that before weren't really connected, like thermostats and energy companies and software companies.
Also, working together to create services and products for people that before could not exist. Another example of this, perhaps not quite as mundane, is the driverless car. So now, with technology in cars, we can make cars themselves driverless in the future. And the car itself is becoming more and more of a basically a screen that's embedded in this living room that drives you around.
Then, that screen can be used for displaying advertising, for displaying all kinds of different commercial opportunities, thereby linking the automotive industry to any kind of other local business that might want to advertise. And anything ranging from Starbucks to, again, Domino's or anybody else that would like to come in and purchase a cup of coffee on their way to work or find a more efficient way to get there. It's really changing some really interesting traditional sectors.
Julia Kirby: So opportunities to be had for both large and small firms in this new age of ubiquity. Gentlemen, thank you so much for being here and sharing your thoughts today.