客製化人才管理

Workforce of One
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埃森哲顧問公司董事總經理大衛.史密斯解釋,為什麼企業應該為個人量身打造人才管理實務,以及可採取的四種做法。

莎拉.葛林:歡迎收看《哈佛商業評論》IdeaCast。我是莎拉.葛林。今天的來賓是埃森哲顧問公司的大衛.史密斯。他與人合著《專人勞動力:透過客製化來革新人才管理》。大衛,非常感謝你今天撥冗前來。

大衛.史密斯:我很高興來上節目,謝謝。

莎拉.葛林:在這本書中,你談到了通往「專人勞動力」的四種途徑。我們待會就會談到。但首先我想請問,什麼是「專人勞動力」?為什麼你認為企業需要這個?

大衛.史密斯:我們在思考專人勞動力時,其實是在展望未來。我們著眼於未來的人才和勞動力發展方向。我們窺視未來,看到現今勞動力的狀況時,會看見組織開始客製化本身的實務做法,向下延伸至個人層次,真的開始出現類似發生在消費者身上的做法。今天員工是消費者,他們有很多選擇。同樣這些選擇正跨入工作場所。雇主如何真正進入工作場所,開始提供客製化體驗給員工?這很像是為消費者提供的體驗。

莎拉.葛林:現在來談談四條通往這個最終結果的不同路徑。第一條是什麼?選擇這條路有什麼好處?

大衛.史密斯:在這本書中,我們確實探討了四種方法,可達成專人勞動力。第一個是區隔化。進行員工區隔。我們思考區隔時,很多組織其實已經開始走上這條路,設法把員工區分為一些工作群組。像工作群組一樣。這些很傳統的技巧,會追蹤某些事業單位的員工工作。很傳統的技巧目前開始關注多元性等議題,把他們區分為不同的工作群組。

我們展望未來時,會看到新的區隔方法正在興起。我能否根據健康來區隔,根據我們員工的健康因素來區隔?然後,提供那個區隔的員工一些獨特的體驗,只對他們有意義的體驗。區隔真的開始流行起來了。我認為更重要的是,人們在看待勞動力區隔方面的進步,這就是第一種方法。

莎拉.葛林:好的,這是選項一。選項二,你談到提供模組化選擇。什麼類型的企業採用這種方法而取得成功?

大衛.史密斯:我們認為,企業會普遍採用模組化選擇。我們會看到它愈來愈盛行。大企業、小企業,那些在零售領域的企業。歸根結柢,提供選擇給員工,會廣泛影響到員工的投入程度、生產力、整體的體驗。因此,要提供選擇,提供預先界定好的各項選擇,而且是在組織可實施的規則範圍內提供,以便企業管理本身的成本概況,但也能為員工體驗創造更多的選擇。

莎拉.葛林:關於模組化,你的意思是指混合搭配的方法?

大衛.史密斯:混合搭配。對於某些區隔,你會開始思考是否可以結合這兩者。我會思考一些想要有不同選擇的區隔群體。有一個很棒的例子,就是工作場所中的不同世代。我要如何提供不同的選擇,給工作場所中不同世代的人?因為人們有不同的學習風格,這是一個例子。我們看到很多這種做法,開始在組織裡廣泛採用。

莎拉.葛林:好的,讓我們繼續討論第三個選項,也就是廣泛而簡單的規則。這聽起來很吸引我,廣泛且簡單。你這個選項是指什麼意思?

大衛.史密斯:在這本書中,我們使用護欄的比喻。我們認為,在很多組織中發生的情況,尤其是大型組織,就是他們制定如此多的規則,限制住了自家的勞動力,限制了創新,限制了生產力。真正的問題是,我們能否改變關注角度?當我們看到組織追求的新成長機會、新市場區隔時,要如何釋放創新的力量?不要設立這麼多預先界定的規則,而是制定廣泛而簡單的規則,好讓組織和人員可以思考結果,而不是嚴格遵循有關工作方式的規則。廣泛而簡單的規則,在大型組織中正成為一種轉型做法,在小型組織也是如此,用這種方式避免過度限制勞動力。

莎拉.葛林:最後你談到第四種方法。你稱為培養由員工定義的個人化。一方面,這聽起來像是最客製化的方法,但也可能是最讓人資頭疼的方法。

大衛.史密斯:這是要改變組織的思考方式。因為你所做的事情,再次用同樣那個消費者領域的比喻,你把權力交到員工手中,讓他們做選擇,讓他們為自己創造最佳體驗,在一些預先界定的選項、規則等範圍內創造。但你把權力交給使用者,交給員工。同樣的情況,也發生在他們目前選擇產品和服務的方式上。同樣這個比喻,是否可以用於企業內部?但這確實導致一些組織有點擔心。這是一種心態轉變,組織必須做這種轉變,以思考員工定義的個人化。

莎拉.葛林:組織該如何決定應優先採用其中哪些方法?

大衛.史密斯:我們考慮了許多因素。組織必須考慮很多因素。我們知道,任何組織可能都不會全部採用我們定義的所有方法。這歸結於成熟度的觀點。你的企業文化有多成熟?你在以下方面的成熟度如何:制定廣泛而簡單的規則方面,或員工定義的個人化方面?你的組織有多分散?我是否必須掌握更多控制權,因為組織非常分散?或者大家是否都在同一地點工作,所以我需要較少的控制權即可,因為我能夠應付?

我們在書中探討了很多因素。我們也談到公平因素,這是組織試圖考慮的另一個因素。這又再次回到了心態轉變,人資單位必須在公平思維方面轉變心態,對吧?當你開始為員工提供選擇和客製化選擇,這種做法帶來的公平性,可能高於為員工制定一套規則和一套方法。

莎拉.葛林:讓我們多談一談公平。因為這聽起來似乎有些微妙的差別。你談到公平時,是否是指對所有員工都公平?還是指員工對組織公平,作為工作和福利之間的商業交換的一部分?

大衛.史密斯:專人勞動力這整個概念,是要在員工和雇主之間創造雙贏關係。因此在公平性方面,實際上是從雙方的角度來看。要讓員工認為,提供給他們的選項,對他們自己是公平的,與他們的世代、在組織中的角色等相關。這對企業也是公平的。因為我設置了一些控制措施,但我也制定一些選項,讓你能享有與你相關的個人化體驗。所以,公平因素實際上是對雙方的。同樣地,我們試圖做的事情,以及為何我們認為這個概念如此強大的原因,在於我們認為這是雙贏,雇主和員工的雙贏。

莎拉.葛林:根據你的經驗,你認為實施任何這類改革的最大挑戰是什麼?

大衛.史密斯:最大的挑戰之一,在於組織處於成熟度曲線的哪個位置。他們人力資本單位的成熟度曲線。他們是否真的有良好的體驗基礎?他們是否真的有很好的體驗基礎?他們是否有良好的基礎設施,可用來管理個人化的人才管理?這成為一個很重要的因素,成為組織歷程的一部分。企業確實需要一個良好的人資基礎設施員工資料庫,以便著手進行一些區隔,並開始深入了解自己的員工群體。真正的重點在於,你在這個歷程所處的位置,決定了你採用這些方法的起點。

莎拉.葛林:好的,我想請問,是否有哪個組織真的擁有特別成功的歷程?也許你可以和我們分享這個故事。

大衛.史密斯:在這本書中,我們檢視了一些先驅企業。我想到的一個例子是百思買。百思買的故事是很棒的故事。因為他們從一家零售商,電子產品零售商,成長為提供全方位服務的技術組織,對吧?隨著「技客團隊」的誕生而做到。技客團隊是完全不同的勞動力,並不是公司的零售工作夥伴。他們如何為技客團隊創造不同的東西,而且要能吸引具備高科技技能的人,來提供電腦或家庭安裝服務,而不是過去在店內提供的零售體驗?然後,我要如何區隔公司在明尼雅波利斯總部所做的工作,有別於這兩種勞動力?他們一直率先思考這個問題,並思考如何運用不同的方法,來對待不同的勞動力。

莎拉.葛林:大衛,非常感謝你今天接受訪談。

大衛.史密斯:不客氣。

莎拉.葛林:這是我們今天的嘉賓,大衛.史密斯,他的新書是《專人勞動力》,更多資訊請造訪hbr.org。

(劉純佑譯)


Sarah Green: Welcome to the Harvard Business Review IdeaCast. I'm Sarah Green. I'm here today with David Smith Accenture. He is the co-author Workforce of One: Revolutionizing Talent Management Through Customization. David, thanks so much for joining us today.

David Smith: Great to be here today. Thank you.

Sarah Green: So in the book you talk about four paths to workforce of one. And we'll get to those in a minute. But first I wanted to ask you what is a workforce of one? And why do you think it's something that companies need?

David Smith: Well when we think of workforce of one, we're looking to the future. And we're looking to the future of where talent and workforces are going. And when we peer into the future and see what's going on with workforces today, we see organizations beginning to customize their practices down to the individual level. It really begins to parallel what goes on as a consumer, right? Employees are consumers today and they have a lot of choices. Well those same choices are transcending into the workplace. So how do employers really come into the workplace and begin to offer customized experiences to their employees? Much like the experienced back on the consumer side.

Sarah Green: So let's talk a little bit maybe about some of these four different paths to this end result. What is the first one? And maybe what are some of the benefits associated with this particular path?

David Smith: Well in the book we do explore four approaches to workforce of one. The first is segmentation. And doing employees' segmentation. When we think about segmentation, a lot of organizations have started on this path really trying to put their employees into workgroups. Like workgroups. Very traditional techniques go after employees the work in certain business units. Very traditional techniques today begin to look at issues like diversity and putting them into diverse workgroups.

As we look to the future we see new approaches to segmentation taking hold. Can I segment on wellness and employee wellness factors of our employees? And then offer to that segment unique experiences that are relevant to them only. So segmentation is really beginning to take hold. And I think more importantly, the advances in how you look at segmenting their workforce is the first approach.

Sarah Green: Ok, so that's option one. Option two, you talk about offering modular choices. What kind of companies succeed with that approach?

David Smith: Well we think it's a universal adoption of a modular choice. And we're going to see more and more of this begin to take hold. Big companies, small companies, those that work in the retail space. At the end of the day, offering choices to the employees has broad effects back on engagement, on productivity, on the overall experience for the employee. So offering choices – pre- defined choices—within some rules that the organization can put in place so that they can manage their cost profile, but also create more choice back into their experiences for their employees.

Sarah Green: So modular, you sort of mean a mix and match approach?

David Smith: A mix and match. So that certain segments, as you begin to think about can I combine these two. As I think about segments that want different choices. You know a great example of different generations in the workplace. How do I offer different choices to different generations in the workplace? Because people have different learning styles, as an example. So we see a lot of this beginning to adopt in organizations is a broad way.

Sarah Green: Ok, well let's move on to option number three. Which is broad and simple rules. That sounds pretty appealing to me actually, broad and simple. What do you mean by that?

David Smith: Well in the book we use the analogy of guardrails. And what we think's happened in many organizations, and particularly large organizations, is they've created so many rules, they've constrain their workforce, they've constrained innovation, they've consteained productivity. And the real question is, can we change the lens on that? As we look at new growth opportunities or new market segments that organizations are going after. How can I begin to unleash the power of innovation? And not put so many pre-defined rules, but create broad and simple rules, so that organizations and people can think about outcomes, as opposed to strictly following the rules of how to get a job done. So broad and simple rules is becoming both in large organizations, a transformation, as well as in small organizations, as a way not to constrain the workforce in too many ways.

Sarah Green: So finally you talk about fourth approach. Which you call fostering employee defined personalization. On the one hand, it sounds like that's sort of the most customized approach. But potentially also the one that might give the HR folks the most headaches.

David Smith: Well it is a shift in the way organizations need to think. Because what you're doing, again using the same analogy back in the consumer space, you're putting power into the hands of the employee. You're letting them make choices. You're letting them create the best experience for themselves, within some pre-defined options, and rules, et cetera. But you're putting the power into the user, into the employee. That same parallel goes on and how they choose products and services today. Can that same analogy be used inside the enterprise? But it does cause some organizations to be a little bit concerned. And it's a mindset shift that organizations need to have as they think about employee defined personalization.

Sarah Green: So how should organization go about sort of prioritizing which of these approaches they might want to use?

David Smith: Well we look at a number of factors. There's a lot of factors that organizations need to think about. We know that all organizations probably won't adopt all approaches that we defined. And it comes down to a maturity standpoint. Where are you on the maturity of your culture? Where are you on the maturity of your thinking about putting in broad and simple rules, or employee defined personalization, versus having a lot of control? How disparate is your organization? Do I have to have more control because it's very disparate? Or are they co-located and I need to have less control because I can deal with it?

So there's a lot of factors that we explore in the book. We talk about fairness factors as well, is another one that organizations try to think about. And again, it comes back to the mindset shift that HR organizations need to have in fairness, right? Fairness actually, as you begin to provide choices and customize choices to employees, actually could be more fair than one set of rules and one set of approaches for your employees.

Sarah Green: Well let's talk a little bit more about fairness. Because that sounds like something that has some subtle nuances. When you talk about fairness, do you mean being fair to all the employees? Or do you mean the employees being fair to the organization, as part of the commercial exchange between work and benefits?

David Smith: Yeah, well the whole concept in workforce of One is about creating the win-win relationship between the employee and employer. So when it comes to fairness, it's actually fairness on both standpoints. It's the employee feels that the options presented to them are fair to them, relevant to their generation, role in the organization, et cetera. And it's fair back to the enterprise. Because I put some controls in place, but I've also created some options so that you can personalize the experience that's relevant for you. So the fairness factor actually is for both sides. And again, what we're trying to do, and why we think this concept is so powerful, is we're seeing this win-win for the employer, as well as the employee.

Sarah Green: So what do you think is, in your experience, the biggest challenges to implementing any of these sort of reforms?

David Smith: Well one of the biggest challenges is where the organization is on the maturity curve. The maturity curve of their human capital organization. Do they really have a good experience base? Do they really have a good experience base? Do they have a good infrastructure to manage personalized talent management? And that becomes a very big factor. It becomes part of the journey that organizations need to take. They really need to have a good HR infrastructure employee database, so that they then can begin to do some segmentation. And begin to get inside on their employee base. So it really is where you are on the journey, sets the stage for your starting point of adopting these approaches.

Sarah Green: Ok, I'd like to ask if there is an organization that's actually had a particularly successful journey? That you could maybe share that story with us.

David Smith: Well in the book we look at a number of pioneers. One that comes to mind is Best Buy. And Best Buy's story is a great story. Because as they've really grown from being a retailer -- an electronics retailer -- to being a full service technology organization, right? With the advent of a Geek Squad. Geek Squad is a whole different workforce, rather than their retail associates. So how do they create something different for Geek Squad that's relevant in attracting high technology skills to service your computer, or your home installation, versus the retail experience that that they had in their stores? And then how do I segregate what I'm doing at central office in Minneapolis, different from those two workforces? So they've been a pioneer in how they're thinking about it, and how they're applying different approaches to different workforces.

Sarah Green: Well, Dave, thanks so much for talking with us today.

David Smith: Great, thank you.

Sarah Green: That was David Smith. And the book is Workforce of One. For more, go to hbr.org.



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