勾勒出你的假設

Sketch Out Your Hypothesis
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商業模式圖讓你在一頁紙上,查看自家公司的所有九個組成要素。亞歷山大.奧斯特瓦德用Nespresso作為個案研究,示範該怎麼做。

我是亞歷山大.奧斯特瓦德。我是《獲利世代》的主要作者,也是strategizer.com的共同創辦人。我要為你們介紹Nespresso的商業模式,該公司專門銷售濃縮咖啡。我們先來了解它的價值主張。它由兩種產品組成,Nespresso咖啡機和附帶的膠囊。接下來檢視Nespresso的經銷策略。該公司透過零售通路把咖啡機賣給家庭,這表示它經由銷售咖啡機,獲得一次性交易的銷售額。

這些錢大部分流向關鍵的合作伙伴,也就是與它合作的咖啡機製造商。至於Nespresso膠囊,公司採取完全不同的經銷策略。他們只經由自己的通路銷售膠囊。一開始透過郵購和電話客服中心銷售,後來建立nespresso.com網站,如今在全球各大城市裡也有Nespresso商店。這很有意思,因為這表示他們必須把建立經銷通路,當成商業模式中的關鍵資源,而這也是首次有雀巢旗下的公司直接向家庭銷售產品。

為什麼它用不同的經銷通路來賣咖啡機和膠囊?他們採用零售通路,是因為它的涵蓋範圍最廣,而公司希望讓咖啡機進入你家。一旦你家中有它,實際上你就被鎖定了,因為你只能使用Nespresso膠囊。這就是所謂的轉換成本,讓你無法光顧其他咖啡機製造商。該公司透過在關鍵資源中的專利,來捍衛這一點。

其中部分專利其實在去年就已到期,這意味公司必須在一定程度上更新商業模式。一旦你有了機器,被鎖定之後,就必須向Nespresso購買膠囊,這表示公司可以從重複的膠囊銷售中賺錢。該公司創造了所謂的經常性收入,改變整個產業,從交易式業務,轉變為擁有經常性收入的重複性業務。

有趣的是,該公司有經常性收入,享有較高利潤率的直接銷售,向消費者收取比一般咖啡高五到六倍的錢。它讓世界各地的人花更多錢購買同樣數量的咖啡。現在,讓我們看一下左手邊的商業模式圖,看看該公司必須做什麼,才能進行它計畫在右手邊做的事。首先,它需要咖啡。因此,它與咖啡種植者合作,並試圖採購一些世界上最好的咖啡,放入膠囊。

膠囊是公司自製的產品。所以膠囊的生產是一項重要的關鍵活動,公司有生產設施做這件事。它每年生產120億個膠囊,這是公司的主要成本之一。另一個重要活動和關鍵資源、也是主要的成本,就是行銷和品牌推廣。跨足消費品市場顯然必須投入大量資金。最後一點很有趣,那就是它直接賣給家庭,這是在模式圖右手邊做出的決定,所以公司必須建立企業對消費者的經銷物流,這可以在左手邊的圖中找到。

所以,現在我們在一張紙上寫下了造就Nespresso成功的一切重要元素。有趣的是,Nespresso在剛起步時,採用完全不同的商業模式,來處理這個完全相同的產品,結果一度瀕臨破產。歷經數次商業模式的改善之後,才終於找到你在這張紙上看到的商業模式,進而創造數十億美元的生意。因此,不同之處不僅在於產品,還包含商業模式圖上的所有元素,而這一切促成Nespresso的成功。

(劉純佑譯)


This business model canvas lets you look at all nine building blocks of your company on one page. Alexander Osterwalder shows how it's done, using Nespresso as a case study.

Alex Osterwalder: My name is Alex Osterwalder. I'm the lead author of Business Model Generation and co-founder of strategizer.com. I'm going to walk you through the business model of Nespresso, a company that sells coffee in the espresso business. So let's look at the value proposition first. It's composed of two products -- the Nespresso machine, and the pods that go with it. And we're going to look at the distribution strategy that Nespresso had. They sell the machines to through retail to households, which means they earn a one-time transactional sale from selling the machines.

Most of that money goes to the key partners, the machine manufacturers who they work together with. And for the Nespresso pods, they have a totally different distribution strategy. They only sell the pods through their own channels. Started out with mail order and call center, then they built nespresso.com, and today in the biggest cities of the world, you'll find Nespresso stores as well. This is interesting, because it meant that they had to build distribution channels as a key resource in their business model, because this is the first time that a Nestle-owned company sells directly to households.

Now, why do they use different distribution channels for the machines and the pods? Well, they use retail because it has the broadest reach possible, because they want to get the machine into your household. Once you have it in your house, you're actually locked in, because you can only use Nespresso pods. That's so-called switching cost, which prevent you from going to another machine manufacturer. And they defend that through the patents that they have in the key resources.

And some of those patents actually expired last year, which means they need to renew their business model to a certain extent. Now, once you have the machine and you're locked in, you're going to have to buy pods from Nespresso, which means they earn money from repetitive pod sales. They create so-called recurring revenues. They changed an entire industry from moving it from a transactional business to a repetitive business with recurring revenue.

So interestingly here, they have recurring revenues. They have direct sales with higher margins. And they ask you for five to six times more for the coffee that you pay. So they get people around the world to pay much more money for the same amount of coffee. Now, let's look at the left hand side of the business model canvas to see what they need to have to do what they plan to do on the right hand side. First of all, they need coffee. So they work together with coffee growers, and they try to source some of the best coffee in the world, which they put in the pods.

And the pods is something that they manufacture themself. So production of the pods is an important key activity. And they have production facilities to do that. They churn out 12 billion pods every year, which is one of their main costs. Another important activity and key resource and main cost in marketing and branding. Obviously, when you're in consumer goods, you need to put a lot of money into that. And the last piece here that's interesting is that because they sell directly to households, a decision made on the right hand side of the canvas, they had to build up business to consumer distribution logistics, which we find in the left hand side of the canvas.

So now we have everything that's important for the success of Nespresso on one piece of paper. And interestingly, when Nespresso started out, they had a totally different business model around exactly the same product, and that almost went bankrupt. So it's only after a couple of iterations of the business model that they were able to find the business model that you see on this piece of paper, and that led to a multi-billion dollar business. So the difference was not the product alone. The difference were all the pieces here on the business model canvas that led to the success of Nespresso.



本篇文章主題商業模式