即使遭到批評之後,男性仍對自己評價很高

Even After Criticism, Men Think Highly of Themselves
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女性則會更快調整自我形象。改編自瑪格麗塔.梅約(Margarita Mayo)刊登在《哈佛商業評論》的文章。

大多數人認為自己表現高於平均水準,並傾向高估自己在各種任務上的表現。批判性回饋意見理應可以解決這個問題,讓我們對自己的看法更符合別人對我們的看法。但真是如此嗎?IE商學院的瑪格麗塔.梅約和她的研究團隊,追蹤研究兩百多名企管碩士學生,為期一個學年。學生的同伴定期向他們提供回饋意見,內容針對四個方面:信心、時間管理、同時處理多項任務、獲得支持。

與先前的研究結果一致,每個人對自己的評價都比同儕高。但長期下來,得到批判性回饋意見,確實會讓人們的自我形象更接近真實情況。但不是每個人對批評的反應都一樣。女學生會迅速調整對自己的看法,以符合他人的意見。到那一年底,平均而言,女性對自己在前述四項技能上表現如何的看法,有三項與同儕對她們的看法幾乎一樣。男性則呈現不同模式。

雖然他們原本不切實際的自我看法,確實變得更符合別人對他們的看法,但他們花更長時間調整,而且到那年的年底,他們對所有四項技能的自我評價仍然過高。為何會有這種差異?研究人員認為,女性社會化之後變得對別人的意見更敏感。儘管這可能會有不利影響,但也提高了她們的自我覺察力。

(劉純佑譯)


Most of us think we're above average, and tend to overestimate our own performance on all kinds of tasks. Critical feedback is supposed to fix that, bringing our perceptions of ourselves more in line with how other people see us. But does it? Margarita Mayo of IE Business School and her research team tracked more than 200 MBA students over the course of an academic year. The student’s peers gave them feedback at regular intervals on four things: confidence, time management, multitasking, and getting buy-in.

In line with previous research, everyone thought more highly of themselves than their peers did. But over time, getting critical feedback did make people’s self-images more realistic. However, not everyone responded to criticism the same way. The female students quickly adjusted their views of themselves to match others’ opinions. By the end of the year, the average woman saw herself almost exactly as her peers saw her on three out of four skills. Men showed a different pattern.

While their unrealistic self-perceptions did become a little more in line with others’ views of them, it took longer for them to adjust, and at the end of the year they still had inflated self-views on all four skills. Why the different? The researchers suggest that women are socialized to be more sensitive to other people's opinions. While this can have a downside, it also increases their self-awareness.



本篇文章主題性別